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Browning 2000 Schematic
Browning 2000 Automatic GAS Operated Shotgun
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We are proud that you have chosen a Browning. In its manufacture we have endeavored to incorporate the very finest in materials and craftsmanship, and with just reasonable care this gun should provide you with many years of pleasure and dependable service. If, by any chance, you have any observations to make regarding its performance or appearance, we hope you will write us immediately. We would also like to know more about you as a Browning owner and would be grateful if you could take but a moment to complete and return the marketing survey card found on the inside back cover. Thank you.
B R O W N I N G New Gun Owners Record
B r o w n i n g
record for future r e f e r e n c e
M o d e l.
Date of Purchase Please fill out and mail the Marketing Survey back of the booklet. Card at the
Route # 1, Morgan, Utah 84050
Distributed in Canada by: 8rowning Arms Co. of Canada, ltd. 5350 Ferrier Street, Montreal, Que. H4P 1L9
GAS OPERATED AUTOMATIC SHOTGUN
In conventional gun terminology, the position and movement of gun parts are described as they occur with the gun horizontal, in normal firing position; i.e., the muzzle is forward or front; butt stock is rearward or rear; trigger is underneath; the rib is on top. a. A L W A Y S V I S U A L L Y C H E C K YOUR SHOTGUN - to be certain that it does not inadvertently contain any ammunition. Whenever you pick up a gun, immediately make sure the gun is on safe and the chamber and magazine are unloaded. b. A L W A Y S K E E P Y O U R G U N S SAFETY IN THE ON SAFE POSITION - even if you are certain the gun is unloaded. Check and double check, frequently while you are hunting. Be sure contact with a twig, a tumble on slippery terrain, the moment of excitement after a shot, or a dozen other seemingly innocent incidents have not left you with a gun, off safe. Never point a gun you are certain is on safe at anything you do not intend to shoot. Safe gun handling does not stop with your guns mechanical safety. It starts there. Handle your gun at all times with deep respect 1
and with alert consideration to all within its range. c. ALWAYS KEEP THE MUZZLE OF YOUR GUN POINTED IN A SAFE DIRECTION - even though you are certain the gun is unloaded and on safe. Never point your gun at anything you do not intend to shoot. d. ALWAYS UNLOAD YOUR SHOTGUN WHEN NOT IN USE - As a safety precaution it is preferable to disassemble your gun for storage. Store your gun and ammunition separately - beyond the reach of children. e. DO NOT PUT A 20 GAUGE SHELL IN A 12 GAUGE GUN - if you value your gun and yourself. We strongly recommend that all shells of different gauges be stored in completely separate and well-marked containers. NEVER store shells of mixed gauges in a common container or IN YOUR POCKETS. EXAMINE EVERY SHELL YOU PUT IN YOUR GUN. The most certain way to bulge or rupture the finest barrel is to drop a 20 gauge shell into a 12 gauge chamber. The 20 gauge shell, unfortunately, will not fall completely through the barrel; its rim is caught by the FRONT of a 12 gauge chamber. Your gun will misfire, and under conditions of carelessness made lethal by haste, a 12 gauge shell can be loaded behind the 20. You could not deliberately have creat2
ed a more serious hazard to your gun and yourself. f. BEWARE OF BARREL OBSTRUCTIONS - for the safety of both your gun and yourself. Mud, snow and an infinite variety of other objects may inadvertently lodge in a barrel bore. It takes only one small obstruction to ruin (swell or rupture) the finest of shotgun barrels. g. DO NOT SNAP THE HAMMER ON AN EMPTY CHAMBER - THE CHAMBER MAY NOT BE EMPTY! Treat every gun with the respect due a loaded gun - even though you are certain the gun is unloaded. It is unnecessary to snap the hammer to prevent weakening of the main spring. It will not weaken even though the hammer is left cocked indefinitely. Neither will snapping the hammer on an empty chamber damage or break the firing pin. AMMUNITION: The gauge and maximum acceptable load are stamped on the right side of the barrel. Never use a load that exceeds these specifications. Magnum shells may be used so long as the cartridge length does not exceed the length stamped on the barrel. That is, a 12 gauge shotgun stamped 12 gauge shells - 2 3/4 inches may use 2 3/4 inch 12 gauge Magnum loads but not 3 inch 12 gauge Magnum loads. 3
CAUTION: Do not take the measurement of an unfired shell to determine the length. An unfired 2 3/4" shell, for example, only measures about 2 1/2". Most shell boxes are stamped as to the length of the shells they contain and some shells are actually individually marked as to their length. The Browning 2000 must be used only with the gauge of ammunition stamped on the barrel. The barrel and action of this shotgun have been made with large safety margins over the pressures developed by established commercial loads. Nevertheless, Browning can assume no responsibility for incidents which occur through the use of cartridges of non-standard dimension or those developing excessive pressures.
This shotgun is gas-operated. A portion of the expanding powder gases is bled off through gas ports in the barrel and used to operate the mechanism. During rearward travel, the bolt extracts and ejects the spent shell and cocks the hammer. During forward travel, a new round is fed from the magazine to the chamber. This operation is semi-automatic; the trigger must be released and pulled to fire each successive shot. After the last shell has been fired, the breech bolt locks open. This of course, facilitates speedy reloading. 4
shipped with the forearm attached to the receiver and magazine tube. In order to install the barrel it is necessary to remove the forearm from the magazine tube and affix the forearm on the barrel before mounting the barrel to the action. Follow the stens below: 1. THOROUGHLY CLEAN ALL ANTIRUST COMPOUND FROM THE BARREL,THE BORE AND OTHER METAL SURFACES. Remove with any good quality gun oil or gun cleaning solvent. 2. Unscrew the forearm cap and remove the forearm from the magazine tube. 3. Affix the forearm to the barrel by locating the entire forearm rearward of the barrel ring and gently sliding the forearm forward until the barrel ring is seated against the rubber forearm bushing (Figure 1). Do not force the rearward end of the forearm upward around the barrel as this could split the forearm.
MOUNTING THE BARREL TO ACTION Your Browning 2000 is packaged and
4. Draw the breech bolt rearward so that it remains locked back. Be sure the safety is on safe. 5. Grasp the butt stock by the pistol grip and anchor the butt end on your hip. With your other hand grasp the forearm and barrel and after a final glance through the bore to be sure there is no barrel obstruction, carefully work the forearm down the magazine tube and introduce the barrel extension into the receiver (Figure 2).
6. As the barrel and forearm are seated into final position, be certain the Ushaped cut in the barrel extension (Figure 3) mates fully against the
barrel guide in the upper inside of the receiver (Point A, Figure 4). Also
check that the metal forearm tabs in the rearward end of the forearm (Figure 5) slide into the opposing receiver recesses (Point B, Figure 4). 7. Screw the forearm cap onto the magazine tube. HAND TIGHTEN ONLY.
Never apply a wrench or any kind of severe force. Removing the barrel is simply done by reversing the above procedure. If you prefer to store your gun with the action and barrel separated, it is suggested that the forearm be attached to the magazine tube and receiver. This secures your forearm and prevents it from possible damage. Do not press the carrier latch and let the breech bolt ride home under its own force, unless the bolt is actually feeding a round into the chamber. It is always advisable, whenever the bolt is being closed on an empty chamber or being closed after the barrel has been removed from the action, to hook your thumb or finger around the bolt operating handle and let the bolt ease forward.
CLOSING THE BREECH
The cross bolt safety blocks the trigger from operating. In the off safe or fire position a red warning band is visible, on the left side of the trigger guard_, alerting the shooter of the guns ready-to-fire status. To accommodate left hand shooters, this safety can be reversed by a gunsmith in a matter of minutes. When reversed, of course, the red warning band will then appear on the 8
SWITCH LOADS FAST
Once loaded, all that is necessary to fire the gun, of course, is to push the safety to the fire position and pull the trigger. The first shell will fire and be ejected. The second will automatically be chambered. The trigger must be released and pulled to fire each successive shot. THE BREECH REMAINS OPEN after the last shot has been fired. This allows you to reload quickly, if you desire to. If the initial shooting of your 12 g a. B-2000 is done with trap, skeet or light field loads, you may experience a few malfunctions in the first box or two of shells. After this short break-in period your B-2000 will operate well with light or heavy loads. As well as speed loading, the Browning 2000 features speed unloading. Before unloading, BE SURE THE SAFETY IS ON SAFE AND THE MUZZLE IS POINTED IN A SAFE DIRECTION. The shells in the loading port and magazine are unloaded first. Simply ease the shell
UNLOADING BREAKING IN WITH LIGHT LOADS
in the loading port outward with your thumb until you can remove it. To remove the shells in the magazine depress the cartridge stop. The cartridge stop (Figure 8) projects from the bottom of the bolt slide. With the cartridge stop depressed let each shell ride rearward and out of the loading port. In this manner you can remove all the shells except the one in the chamber. This shell is removed by drawing the breech bolt rearward and catching the shell as it ejects. A magazine plug, restricting the Browning 2000s capacity to 3 shots, is furnished with each gun. TO INSTALL THE PLUG first remove the trigger group (see pages 23 and 24). Merely push
the solid end of the magazine plug through the opening in the follower until the plug is
completely within the magazine (Figure 9). Important: Be certain that the split end of the magazine plug is rearward. TO REMOVE THE PLUG first remove the trigger group (see pages 23 and 24). Then take an empty shotshell and place the mouth of the shell against the magazine follower (Figure 10). Thumb this empty shell far enough into the magazine to place a second empty shell behind the first. Then press the second empty shell into the magazine (Figure 11). Some pressure with the thumb will be required, since it causes the split rearward end of the magazine plug to compress and emerge through the hole in the magazine follower and into the inside of the first empty shell. Ease the shells rearward and out of the magazine.
You will now see the plug protruding from the follower. Simply pull the plug from the magazine follower (Figure 9). Now reinstall the trigger group. With the plug removed your 2000 has a capacity of five 2 3/4" shells. When it is set up to fire 3" magnum shells with a 3" magnum barrel, the capacity is four 3" shells. 13
With the plug installed the capacity is reduced to three shells - whether the 2000 is set up to fire 2 3/4" shells only or 3 magnum shells.
INTERNAL GAS SYSTEM
The Browning 2000 has a uniquely designed, extremely reliable gas system. It is compactly contained within the magazine tube. This makes it less accessible to dirt and allows a slim forearm design. The gas is sealed off so that it cannot blow rearward into the forearm, along the action bar assembly and toward the action The gas is vented forward through the hole in the forearm cap. How often should you strip down the gas system and clean it? There is no rule of thumb. It depends somewhat on the type of ammunition you use and how heavily you shoot your gun. Hunters will probably want to clean the system at the seasons end. Trap and skeet shooters will perhaps want to clean it more frequently Its a matter of shooting conditions and judgment.
DISMANTLING AND CLEANING THE GAS SYSTEM
Dismantling the gas system is very simple. Make sure the safety is on and draw the breech bolt rearward until it locks open. Unscrew the forearm cap and remove the barrel and forearm. You will notice the gas piston bar project14
ing from each side of the magazine tube (Figure 12). Remove this simply by pushing it
b8Sx:9 _< from one side and withdrawing it from the other (Figure 13). As you do this hold your
ARE UNDER SPRING RETAIN THEM AS Y W I T H D R A W G A S Pi
finger or thumb against the gas cylinder plug which protrudes slightly from the forward end of the magazine tube (Figure 13). This is necessary because the gas system is under spring tension. Now ease the gas system components forward out of the magazine tube. Carefully note the sequence of parts as you withdraw them from the magazine tube (Figure 14).
(Continued on page 20) 15
Automatic 2000 Gas Operated Shotgun
This page contains the schematic for the 12 gauge B-2000. F o r corresponding 20 gauge. part numbers refer to t h e p a r t s list o n @-I2394 the following page.
lMP0RTANT: W h e n o r d e r i n g p a r t s , list code number, part name, gauge, model and serial number.
PARTS LIST 12 AND 20 GAUGE GAS OPERATED SHOTGUN B-2000 DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION PART # Part #
l 12014 *12024 * 12025 *12028 *12034 *12060 * 12068 * Action 8ar Left 12, 20 ga. Action 8ar Right 12, 20 ga. Action Bar Right (4), , Action Spring 12 ga. Action Spring 20 ga. 8arrel Ring 12 ga. 8arrel Ring 20 ga. 8arrel Guide 12, 20 ga. 8olt 12 ga. 8olt 20 ga. Bolt Slide 12 ga. Bolt Slide 20 ga. Butt Plate 20 ga. 8utt Plate 12 ga. Butt Plate Screw 12, g a. Butt Stock, Field 12 ga. 8utt Stock, Trap 12 ga. 8utt Stock, Skeet 12 ga. 8utt Stock, Field 20 ga. Butt Stock, Skeet 20 g a. Carrier 12 ga. Carrier 20 ga. Carrier Cartridge Limit Pin 12, 20 ga. Carrier Cartridge Pin 12 ga. Carrier Cartridge Pin 20 ga. Carrier Cartridge Spring 12, 20 ga. Carrier Cartridge Stop 12 ga. Carrier Cartridge Stop Carrier Dog 12 ga. Carrier Dog 20 ga. Carrier Dog Pin 12, 20 ga. Carrier Dog Spring 12, 20 ga. Carrier Dog Spring Guide 12, 20 ga. Carrier Latch 12 ga. Carrier Latch 20 ga. Carrier Latch Pin 12 ga. Carrier Latch Pin.20 ga. Carrier Latch Spring 12, Carrier Latch Spring Plunger 12, 20 ga. Carrier Latch Trip 12 ga. Carrier Latch Trip 20 ga. *12198 Carrier Latch Trip Pin 12 ga. Carrier Latch Trip Pin 20 ga. Carrier Pin 12, 20 ga. Carrier Release 12 ga. Carrier Release 20 ga. Carrier Release Pin 12, 20 ga. Carrier Spring 12, 20 ga. Cartridge Stop 12, 20 ga. Cartridge Stop Pin 12, 20 ga. Cartridge Stop Spring 12, 20 ga. Disconnector 12, 20 ga. Disconnector Pin 12, 20 ga. Disconnector Spring 12, 20 ga. Disconnector Spring Plunger 12. 20 ga. Extractor 12,20 ga. Extractor Spring 12, 20 ga. Extractor Spring Plunger 12,
Firing 12, ga. 12, 20 ga. Firing Pin Bushing Pin 12, 20 ga. 12202 Firing Pin Spring 12, 20 ga. 12206 Forearm, Field 12 ga. Forearm, Semi Beavertail ga. Forearm, Field 20 ga. 12212 Forearm, Semi Beavertail ga. 12216 Forearm Bushing 12 ga. Forearm Bushing 20 ga. 12220 Forearm Bushing Washer 20 ga. only Forearm Cap 12 ga. 12222 Forearm Cap w/Eyelet ga. 12224 Forearm Cap 20 ga. 12225 Forearm Cap w/Eyelet 20 ga. 12227 Forearm Cap Buffer 12 ga. 9 Forearm Cap Buffer 20 ga. 1 Forearm Cap Buffer Washer 20 ga. only 12232 Forearm Cap Plunger 12, 20 ga.
PART # *l2378
DESCRIPTION Mainspring Pin-Trigger Guard 20 ga. Operating Handle 12 ga. Operating Handle 20 ga. Operating Handle Retainer Pin 12, 20 ga. Operating Handle Retainer Pin 12, 20 ga. Operating Handle Retainer Spring 12, 20 ga. Receiver Assembly 12 ga. Receiver 12 ga. Field Type 2 Receiver Assembly 12 ga. Trap & Skeet Receiver Assembly 20 ga. Receiver 20 ga. Field Type 2 Receiver Assembly 20 ga.
Forearm Cap Plunger Spring 12,20 ga. *12240 Forearm Liner 12 ga. *12242 Forearm Liner 20 ga. * 6 Forearm Tabs 12 ga. *12248 Forearm Tabs 20 ga. 12252 Gas Cylinder Plug 12 ga. 12254 Gas Cylinder Plug 20 ga. 12262 Gas Piston 12 ga. 12264 Gas Piston 20 ga. 12268 Gas Piston Bar 12 ga. 12270 Gas Piston Bar 20 ga. 12272 Gas Piston Bar Guide 12 ga. 12274 Gas Piston Bar Guide 20 ga. 12276 Gas Piston Buffer 12 ga. 12278 Gas Piston Buffer 20 ga. 12282 Gas Piston Spring 12 ga. Gas Piston Spring 20 ga. 12284 Gas Piston Valve 12 ga. Gas Piston Valve 20 ga. *12292 Hammer 12 ga. * 12294 Hammer 20 ga. 12298 Hammer Pin 12 ga. 12299 Hammer Pin 20 ga. Inertia Piece 12 ga. 12302 Inertia Piece 20 ga. 12304 123O8 Locking Block 12 ga. Locking Block 20 ga. Magazine Adaptor Three Shot 12, 20 ga. 12315 Magazine Base 12 ga. 12318 Magazine Base 20 ga. 12320 Magazine Base Pin 12 ga. 12322 Magazine Base Pin 20 ga. 12324 Magazine Follower 12 ga. 12326 Magazine Follower 20 ga. 12330 Maaazine Spring 12 ga. 12332 Magazine Spring 20 ga. *12336 Magazine Tube 12 ga. *12338 Maaazine Tube 20 ga. 2 M a & s p r i n g - R i g h t or Left 12, 20 ga. 12348 Mainspring Guide-Right or Left 12. 20 ga. 12352 Mainspring Pin-Hammer 12 ga. 4 Mainspring P i n - H a m m e r 12356 Mainspring Pin-Trigger Guard 12 ga.
*12415 **12432 *12462 12464
Receiver Buffer 12 ga. Receiver Buffer 20 ga. Safety Crossbolt 12, 20 ga. Safety Spring 12, 20 ga. Safety Spring Plunger 12, 20 ga. Safety Spring Retaining Pin 12, 20 ga. S e a r ga. Sear 20 ga. Sear Pin 12, 20 ga. Sight Base Front 12, 20 ga. Sight Bead Front 12, 20 ga. Stock Bolt 12, 20 ga. Stock Bolt Washer 12, 20 ga. Trigger 12 ga. Trigger 20 ga. Trigger Pin 12, 20 ga. Trigger Guard 12 ga. Trigger Guard 20 ga. Trigger Guard Retaining Pin 12 ga. Trigger Guard Retaining Pin 20 ga. Trigger Guard Retaining Pin Bushing 12, 20 ga. Trigger Guard Retaining Pin Spring 12, 20 ga. Trigger Guard Shield 12 ga. Trigger Guard Shield 20 ga.
I n1977 production, these two parts will be combined to form one integral part. I n1977 production, forearm tabs will be part of one integral piece. M a y be purchased only by holder of valid Federal Firearms license. *Indicates part must be fitted by our Service Department or Qualified Gunsmith.
CAUTION: Do not trip the carrier latch and let the bolt fly home when the gas piston bar is removed. The operating handle of the bolt will slam into the front of the receiver and damage it. If you wish to close the bolt at this time, make sure you hold onto the operating handle and let the bolt very slowly ride forward until the operating handle rests against the forward edge of the ejection port. You are now ready to wipe out the magazine tube and clean the components. The gas piston and gas cylinder plug are bronze. If you decide to scrub these components with a brush, be sure you use a typical brass bore cleaning type brush and not a steel brush or any other type that will scratch these components. Use a good quality powder solvent, such as Browning Liquid Gunsmith, to clean the gas system components. Do not use gun oil. This will collect foreign matter. Keep these components clean and dry. Reassemble the gas system components in the exact order as you removed them. Pay 20
particular attention to lining up the slot in the gas piston bar guide (A, Figure 15) with the holes in the gas piston (B, Figure 15) and the magazine tube (C, Figure 15) so that you can easily insert the gas piston bar. Be cer-
tain that the slot in the gas piston bar guide (A, Figure 15) is rearward. This is critical for proper functioning. Also be certain that the aperture in the forward end of the gas
GAS ENTRANCE APER IN MAGAZINE TUBE
piston is located upward and in alignment with the gas entrance aperture in the top of the magazine tube (Figure 16). To insure that you install the gas piston with this aperture upward, the slot C in the magazine tube and the slots A & B n the gas piston and i gas piston bar guide are machined off center If after installing the gas system in the magazine tube, you cannot easily install the gas piston bar, you have not assembled the components properly. Remove them and be certain the aperture is located upward. Never cannot insert the bar with your fingers, you are not assembling the gas system correctly Also during assembly be sure the concave surface of the gas cylinder plug bears against the gas piston. (Of Interest: During disassembly of the gas system you will have noticed the white gas piston buffer. Buffers are also located in the forearm cap and in the rearward portion of the receiver. These act as shock absorbers greatly cushioning the forceful operation of the gas system and the energy it imparts to the bolt. They help to soften recoil, making your 2000 very pleasant to shoot.)
TO SHOOT 3" MAGNUMS
under any circumstances tap the gas piston bar with a hammer or other object. If you
purchase a different action nor alter the gas 22
If the barrel of your Browning 2000 is chambered for 2 3/4" shells, all you need to shoot 3 magnum loads is an extra barrel chambered for 3 shells. You do not need to
system in any way. The gas ports in the barrels differ, so that you can interchange chambered barrels and 3" chambered /" barrels on the same action NOTE: With the 3 inch Magnum barrel * installed the B-2000 is designed to function reliably with 3 inch Magnum shells While no harm can come from shooting 2/" Mg 34 a num Ioads in the 3 inch chambered M g u an m barrel, it is not advised since the ejector mechanism built into the barrel extension of the 3" barrel to specifically eject 3" cartr i d g e s is not totally dependabIe upon ejection with the shorter cartridges. Should the shooter not mind an occasional hang up in t e ejector port with the shorter 234 Mag_ h /" num shells he indeed may also use them if desired. disassemble your Browning 2000 for a thorough cleaning Your 2000 can be completely stripped down without any tools exceptmg a drive punch or any similar object which wiII enable you to remove the trigger guard retaining pin. Follow the steps below: B sure your gun is unloaded and on safe. e 1. Remove the barrel and forearm and dismantle the gas system as described on page 17. 2. Hold onto the bolt operating handle trip the carrier latch and softly ease the bolt forward unti1 the operating handle rests against the forward part 23
DISASSEMBLY OF THE ACTION PeriodicalIy YOU may wish to completely
of the receiver. DO NOT LET THE BOLT SLAM FORWARD. 3. Remove the trigger guard retaining pin (Figure 17).
TRIGGER GUARD RETAINING PIN
4. Draw the bolt rearward about 11/2 inches (Figure 18).
5. With your other hand trip the carrier latch, grasp the trigger guard (Figure 18) and remove by forcing it slightly forward before attempting to lift it out of the receiver (Figure 19).
Ease the bolt forward again. With the butt stock resting firmly on a workbench or table, grasp the action bar assembly and compress the a c t i o n spring several inches (Figure 20). Remove the bolt operating handle with your other hand. Firm finger 25
pressure removes it easily (Figure 21).
9. To remove the bolt
and bolt slide ease the action bar assembly forward off the magazine tube while depressing the cartridge stop with your finger (Figure 22). The cartridge stop projects from the bottom of the bolt slide. Particularly notice how the double action bars separate from the bolt. This will help you during reassembly later.
You can now easily clean all of these components as well as the inside of the receiver. (See Figure 23.) Again a good solvent is
ACTION SPRING BOLT S L I D E CARTRIDGE STOP
recommended. Further disassembly of the trigger group is not recommended. NOTE: Do not apply large quantities of oil to the trigger group or other areas of the action. Excessive oil is not necessary and serves to collect dust and minute particles of dirt. Excessive oil could also soak into the stock; softening the walnut and loosening the stock. Only a very, very light film of fine quality gun oil is needed to protect these working parts. Follow the steps below: 1. Slide the action spring onto the magazine tube, compress the action spring and start the action bar assembly onto the magazine tube. Grasp the action bar assembly keeping the spring slightly compressed. 2. Assemble the bolt and bolt slide and align the action bars in their respective 27
REASSEMBLY OF THE ACTION
recesses in the bolt slide. This is done just forward of the receiver before the bolt is completely inserted into the receiver. Notice that the left (loading port side) action bar enters from the top of the bolt slide (Figure 24) while the right action bar
LEFT A C T I O N BAR E N T E R S BOLT SLIDE FROM TOP
attaches from the bottom (Figure 25). It is
RIGHT ACTION BAR ENTERS BOLT SLIDE FROM BOTTOM
easiest to cant the bolt assembly to the left and attach the left action bar first, then rotate the bolt assembly to the right and downward until the right action bar is engaged. 3. Keeping the action bars located in the bolt slide with your fingers (Figure 26) carefully orient the bolt assembly in the appropriate receiver channels and push rearward on the action bar assembly until the bolt assembly slides into the receiver.
4. Insert the bolt operating handle and gradually release pressure on the action bar assembly. 5. Draw the bolt partially rearward and insert the trigger group (Figure 27). Replace the trigger guard retaining pin. CAUTION: While inserting the trigger group be careful not to scratch the undersurface of the receiver with the carrier cartridge 29
stop. (This is the long, slender, unblued piece of metal which lies alongside the carrier; see Figure 27.) If you will tip the trigger group so that you introduce the carrier and the carrier cartridge stop into the receiver first, you can easily avoid scratching the receiver. 6. Lock the bolt open. 7. Replace the gas system (see pages 19 and 20) and install barrel and forearm. Use the same gun for multiple shooting conditions merely by changing from one barrel to another of different choke, length and rib. Barrels of the same gauge are completely interchangeable, and no special fitting or altering of the gas system is required. Thus, by merely buying another barrel, you have the utility of another gun at a fraction of the cost of a new gun. a duck gun becomes a skeet gun or a fine upland gun by the mere addition of an extra barrel. 30
TWO OR MORE: GUNS IN ONE BY USE OF EXTRA BARRELS
NOTE: As pointed out earlier, you do not need a complete separate gun to shoot 3 magnums. An extra 3 magnum barrel is all that is needed. Simply interchange barrels. Altering the gas system is unnecessary. See page 22. NOTE: With the 3 inch Magnum barrel installed the B-2000 is designed to function reliably with 3 inch Magnum shells. While no harm can come from shooting 2 3/4" Magnum loads in the 3 inch chambered Magnum barrel, it is not advised since the ejector mechanism built into the barrel extension of the 3 barrel to specifically eject 3 cartridges is not totally dependable upon ejection with the shorter cartridges. Should the shooter not mind an occasional hang up in the ejection port with the shorter 2 3/4" Magnum shells he indeed may also use them if desired. Please see your Browning dealer for barrel specifications available. The correct procedure for cleaning your shotgun is as follows:
BE CERTAIN YOUR SHOTGUN IS UNLOADED CLEANING SUGGESTIONS
Dismount barrel so that it can be cleaned from the breech end. 2. Using a shotgun rod with tip and patch large enough for snug fit in bore, insert rod and patch in breech end of barrel and run back and forth through bore several times.
3. Inspect bore from both ends for leading by looking through bore toward light. Leading will appear as dull longitudinal streaks and is usually more predominant in the constriction area of the choke and just forward of the chamber. 4. Leading is minimal with todays modern loads. If or when leading should become heavy, it can be removed with a brass bore brush. Use a good powder solvent such as Browning Liquid Gunsmith and scrub bore until leading is removed. To prevent brass bristles from breaking off, the brush should be pushed completely through bore before being withdrawn. 5. After leading has been removed, the bore should be wiped dry and then a slightly oiled patch run through it for preservation. 6. If the gun has been exposed to much dust, dirt, mud or water, the action and gas system should be stripped down and cleaned as outlined in this booklet. 7. Reassemble barrel and wipe all exposed metal surfaces with an oiled cloth making sure to wipe gun clean of all finger marks where moisture will accumulate. 6. The wood surfaces can also be wiped with Browning Gun Oil or they can be polished with any quality furniture wax. 32
SERIAL NUMBER: The serial number of your Browning 2000 Shotgun is found on the underside of the receiver, just forward of the carrier. The choke of your barrel is indicated by a clearly defined mark stamped on the right hand side of the barrel. The code for the choke markings is as follows: * Improved Cylinder **_ Full **S Improved Modified *_ Skeet *** Modified * * Cylinder
SERVICE OR REPAIR If your shotgun should require service or repairs we suggest you first contact a local authorized Browning Firearms Service Center. Your Browning Sporting Goods dealer can tell you the address of the Service Center nearest you or you may call or write our Consumer Information Dept. in Morgan, Utah - (801) 876-2711. Otherwise you may return your shotgun to our own repair facility for servicing. The address is: Browning Service Department Route 4, Box 624-B Tenbrook Road Arnold, Missouri 63010 (3 14) 287-6800 When returning your shotgun for servicing, please be sure to package it securely in a cardboard container. Send a letter to our Service Department clearly describing the trouble experienced and the repairs or alterations desired. If convenient, also enclose a copy o f your letter with the gun.
Printed in U.S.A.
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OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND CONSUMER AFFAIRS STATE OF HAWAII
In the Matter of
BROWNING-FERRIS INDUSTRIES OF HAWAII, INC., Petitioner,
) ) ) ) )
FINDINGS OF FACT, CONCLUSIONS OF LAW, AND DECISION
STATE OF HAWAII, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, Respondent. and
THE KNG GROUP, INC.,
Intervenor. HEARINGS OFFICER'S FINDINGS OF FACT, CONCLUSIONS OF LAW, AND DECISION I. INTRODUCTION On or about March 2,2000, Browning-Ferris Industries of Hawaii, Inc. ("Petitioner"), filed a request for an administrative hearing pwsuant to Hawaii Revised Statutes ("HRS') $1030-709. The purpose of the request was to contest the denial of Petitioner's protest in connection with the Department of Transpoication, State of Hawaii's of ("Respondent"), proposed award to The I&G Group, Inc. ("KNG), the contract for DOT Project No. E01522-99, pertaining to Furnishing Refuse Collection and Disposal Service at The Honolulu International Airport.
The matter was thereafter set for hearing and the Notice of Hearing and PreHearing conference was duly served on the parties. On March 20,2000, the parties filed a Stipulation to Allow Intervention of The KNG Group as an additional party and on March 23,2000, the parties stipulated to continue the hearing to April 4,2000. On March 13,2000, Respondent filed a Response to Petitioner's Request for
On March 31,2000, KNG filed a Memorandum in Support of Respondent
Department of Transportation's Determination. Respondent and Petitioner filed prehearing briefs on March 31,2000. On the same date, the parties filed Stipulated Facts. The matter came on for hearing before the undersigned Hearings Oficer on April 4,2000, in accordance with the provisions of the Hawaii Public Procurement Code, HRS Chapter 103D ("Procurement Code"). Petitioner was represented by Peter W. Olson, Esq. Respondent was represented by Wayne A. Matsuura, Esq. and KNG was represented by Howard T. Chang, Esq. At the conclusion of the hearing, the Hearings Officer requested that the parties submit written closing arguments and proposed fmdings of fact and conclusions of law. Petitioner filed its closing argument on April 14,2000; Respondent and KNG filed their closing arguments on April 20,2000; and Petitioner filed its rebuttal on April 26,2000. The parties filed their proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law on May 12,2000. Having reviewed and considered the evidence and arguments presented by the respective parties at the hearing, together with the entire record of these proceedings, the Hearings Officer hereby renders the following findings of fact, conclusions of law and decision. The parties' stipulated facts and proposed findings and conclusions were adopted to the extent that they were consistent with the established factual evidence and applicable legal authority, and were rejected or modified to the extent that they were inconsistent with established factual evidence and applicable legal authority, or were otherwise irrelevant.
On the same date, KNG filed a motion to intervene in the administrativehearing. KNG subsequently withdrew the motion in lieu of the stipulation allowing it to intervene in this proceeding.
FINDINGS OF FACT 1. On or about July 22, 1999, Kazu Hayashida, Respondent's Director, issued
a Notice To Bidders for Specifications And Proposal For Furnishing Refuse Collection And Disposal Service At The Honolulu International Airport, Honolulu, Hawaii, Island of Oahu, Project No. E O1522-99 (1999)("Project"). 2. Pursuant to the notice to bidders, the date set for the submission and opening of bids was August 19,1999.
3. Ms. Jamie Ho was the Contracts Engineer for Respondent who reviewed
the bids for the Project.
4. KNG submitted a Notice of Intent to Bid on August 6, 1999. The notice
was signed by Kris Gourlay ("Gourlay"), as "Owner." 5. Four parties submitted bids on August 19, 1999for the Project, including Petitioner and KNG. 6. On August 19,1999, the bids were opened. The lowest bid was that of KNG for $1,311,690.00. The second lowest bid of $1,558,332.00 was submitted by Petitioner.
7. After the bid opening, Respondent began evaluating the bid received from
KNG. 8. By letter dated September 22,1999 from Petitioner's attorney to Respondent, Petitioner protested the bid submission of KNG on the asserted ground that KNG was not a "responsible bidder." Petitioner requested that the subject contract instead be awarded to Petitioner as the second lowest bidder. 9. By letter dated October 6, 1999, Ms. Ho requested that KNG complete and return a Standard Qualification Questionnaire ("SQQ), to Respondent. 10. Under cover of a letter dated October 28, 1999, Gourlay returned the completed SQQ to Respondent. 11. Gourlay's October 28, 1999 cover letter states that Pacific Waste Services, Inc. ("PWS") subcontractors." and SEI Solid Waste, Inc. ("SEI") are KNG's "intended project
12. As of August 19, 1999, KNG did not own any refuse collection trucks or any r e h e collection containers, or own any necessary equipment, and at the present time KNG does not own any such equipment. However, in the SQQ, KNG represented to Respondent that it has the necessary commitments to obtain such equipment once the contract is awarded to KNG. 13. As of August 19, 1999, KNG did not own or lease a site fiom which to operate and keep its refuse collection trucks, and at the present time does not own or lease such a site. However, in the SQQ, KNG provided Respondent with a copy of a proposed lease. Also, in a letter dated February 9,2000 &om KNG to Respondent, KNG represented that it has negotiated property leases with several property owners. 14. As of August 19, 1999, KNG did not have any employees, including any qualified drivers, mechanics, or welders, and at the present time does not employ any such persons. However, in the SQQ, KNG provided its Work Plan Outline and documentation for obtaining such employees. 15. As of August 19, 1999, and continuing to the present, KNG did not have any insurance covering refuse collection trucks; did not carry any worker's compensation
insurance; and did not carry any general commercial liability insurance policy. However, in
the SQQ, KNG provided to Respondent its Work Plan Outline and documentation for obtaining such insurance. 16. As of August 19, 1999, and continuing to the present, KNG did not have a commercial vehicle operating permit with the Public Utilities Commission or a City and County of Honolulu refuse collection permit. However, in the Work Plan Outline submitted by KNG to Respondent on October 28, 1999, and later in a letter dated February 9,2000 fiom KNG to Respondent, KNG explained why it did not have such permits or licenses and submitted its plan for obtaining those permits and licenses. 17. As of August 19, 1999, and continuing to the present, neither PWS nor SEI has a City and County of Honolulu refuse collection permit. However, in a meeting on February 10,2000 between Ms. Ho and Gourlay, Gourlay represented that PWS and SEI would obtain such permits.
18. As of the present time, neither PWS nor SEI are registered to do business in the State of Hawaii. However, both have obtained the necessary application forms to register. 19. As of the present time, PWS and SEI are not registered with the Department of Commerce and Consumer Affairs in a joint venture with KNG. 20. By letter dated February 9,2000 to Respondent, KNG outlined its position on its responsibility and described how it planned to obtain the required resources, including the refuse license, equipment and facilities. 21. On February 10,2000, Ms. Ho met with Gourlay for the purpose of discussing KNG's ability to perform the contract. Gourlay represented that if the project contract is awarded to KNG, KNG would be able to start within eight weeks using PWS and SEI as subcontractors. 22. By letter dated February 18,2000, Respondent informed Petitioner's attorney that Respondent had determined that KNG is a responsible bidder and that Respondent therefore intended to award the contract to KNG, as the lowest responsible bidder. 23. By letter dated March 1,2000 fiom Petitioner's attorney, Petitioner requested an administrativehearing of Respondent's determination. 24. The previous contract for the Project, advertised in 1995, was awarded to Petitioner who performed the contract until its expiration. Petitioner continues to perform the current contract as an emergency hire pending the awarding of a new contract.
CONCLUSIONS OF LAW
If any of the following conclusions of law shall be deemed to be findings of
fact, the Hearings Officer intends that every such conclusion of law shall be construed as a finding of fact. A. Jurisdiction.
HRS J103D-709(a) extendsjurisdiction to the H e g s Officer to review the
determinations of the chief procurement officer, head of a purchasing agency, or a designee of either officer made pursuant to HRS $$I030-310,IOjD-701 or 1030-702, de novo. In doing so, the Hearings Officer has the authority to act on a protested solicitation or award in
the same manner and to the same extent as contracting officials authorized to resolve protests under HRS $1030-701. Carl Corp. v. State Dept. of Educ., 85 Haw.431 (1997). And in reviewing the contracting officer's determinations, the Hearings Officer is charged with the
task of deciding whether those determinations were in accordance with the Constitution,
statutes, regulations, and the terms and conditions of the solicitation or contract. HRS
$1 030- 7O9#.
B. Determination of Responsibility. The salient facts are not in dispute. In July 1999, Respondent issued a solicitation for bids to furnish refuse collection and disposal services at the Honolulu International Airport. Bidders were required to submit a notice of intention to bid ten days prior to the bid opening date. The date set for the submission and opening of the bids was August 19, 1999. Four bids were submitted. The lowest bid of $1,311,690.00 was submitted by KNG. Petitioner's bid of $1,558,332.00 was the second lowest bid. Following bid opening, Respondent began evaluating KNG's qualifications and, based upon information it received after August 19, 1999, informed Petitioner's attorney by letter dated February 18, 2000, that Respondent had found KNG to be a responsible bidder. Petitioner complains'that pursuant to Hawaii Administrative Rules ("HAR' I ) $$j-l22-108 and 3-122-110, Respondent was required to determine bidder responsibility upon receipt of the notices of intention to bid and before the bids were opened. HAR $3-1221O8@)states in relevant part: Upon notification of the bidder's intent to submit an offer, the procurement officer shall determine whether the prospective offeror has the ability to perform the work intended. Additionally, HAR $3-122-110 provides in part: Determination of nonres~onsibility. (a) The procurement officer shall determine, on the basis of available information, the responsibility or nonresponsibility of a prospective ~fferor.
(b) If the procurement officer requires additional information, the prospective offeror shall promptly supply the information. Failure to provide the requested
information at least forty-eight hours prior to the time advertised for the opening shall be considered unreasonable and may be grounds for a determination of nonresponsibility. (c) Notwithstanding the provision of paragraph (b), the head of the purchasing agency shall not be precluded fiom requesting additional information. (d) Upon determination that a prospective offeror is not l l l y qualified to perform the work, the head of the purchasing agency or designee shall afford the prospective offeror an opportunity to be heard. Upon conclusion of the hearing and if still of the opinion that the bidder is not hlly qualified to perform the work, the head of the purchasing agency or designee shall refbse to receive or consider any offer made by the prospective offeror.
According to Petitioner, the foregoing sections construed together, require the procurement officer to make the responsibility determinationprior to bid opening. The determination of bidder responsibility involves an inquiry into the bidder's ability and will to perform the subject contract as promised. Responsibility concerns
how a bidder will accomplish conformance with the material provisions of the contract; it addressesthe performance capability of the bidder, and normally involves an inquiry into the potential contractor's financial resources, experience, management, past performance, place of performance, and integrity. Blount, Inc. v. US., Cl.Ct. 221 (1990). See also Federal 22 Elec. Corp. v. Fasi, 56 Haw.54 (1974). "Responsibility.refers to a bidder's apparent ability and capacity to perform the contract requirements and is determined not at bid opening but at any time prior to award based on any information received by the agency up to that time." See Peterson Accounting-CPA Practice, Comp Gen Decision No. 108,524
( 994)(emphasis added). 1
In contrast, bid responsivenessrefers to the questign of whether a bidder has
promised to perform in the precise manner requested by the government with respect to price, quality, quantity, and delivery. Blount, supra. A responsive bid is one that, if accepted by the government as submitted, will obligate the contractor to perform the exact thing called for
in the solicitation. Bean Dredging Corp. v. US., 2 CZ. Ct. 519 (1991). Matters of responsiveness must be discerned solely by reference to materials submitted with the bid and facts available to the government at the time of the bid opening. Blount, supra. "The rule is designed to prevent bidders fiom taking exception to material provisions of the contract in order to gain an unfair advantage over competitors and to assure that the government evaluates bids on an equal basis." Blount, supra, citing Cibinic and Nash, Formation of
Government Contrucrs (2nd Ed, l986), p. 394.
In Arakaki v. State ofHuwaii, Dept. of Accounting and General Services,
the PCH-96-8 (June 23, 1997),~ Hearings Officer found that the low bidder was entitled to present information bearing on its responsibility at any time up to the awarding of the contract. In arriving at that conclusion, the Hearings Officer took notice of the decisions of the United States Claims Court and the comptroller general holding that a bidder may present evidence of responsibility after bid opening up until the time of the award. BIount at 226
(citing Mack Trucks, Inc. v. United States, 6 Cl. Ct. 68,71 (1984)):
This conclusion is apparently based on the rationale that matters of responsibility are determined not at bid opening but at any time prior to award and further, that the information would not relieve the bidder from complying with the material terms and conditions of the solicitation. See Peterson Accounting-CPA Practice, supra. See also Blount, supra. Cases construing Maryland's model code-based procurement law have also reached the same conclusion. For example, in Appeal of Peninsula General Hospital Medical Center, No. 1248 (MSCBAAug. 19, l985), the board found that information bearing on a prospective contractor's ability to perform in accordance with the terms of the contract related to responsibility and might properly be received and evaluated after bid opening. And in Appeal of Aquatel Industries, Inc., No. 1192 (MSBCAAug. 30, 1984), the board similarly held that materials related to the
The Hearings Officer's decision was reversed by the Hawaii Supreme Court on other grounds. See Arakold v. State of Hawaii, Dept. ofAccounting & General Services. 87 Haw. 147 (1998).
determination of a bidder's responsibility could be submitted by the bidder after bid opening. (Emphasis added). Those decisions are equally applicable to the present situation. Moreover,
HRS S103D-104 defines a "responsible bidder'' as "a person who has the capability in all
respects to perform l l l y the contract requirements, and the integrity and reliability which will assure good faith performance." (emphasis added). "Capability" refers to "capability ar the time of award of contract." HAR $3-122-1 (emphasis added). Accordingly, these definitions are consistent with the foregoing authorities and buttress the conclusion that responsibility may be determined at any time up to the awarding of the contract.
A reading of HAR $3-122-108 and 3-122-110 does not lead the Hearings
Officer to a different conclusion. Those provisions require the procurement officer to undertake to determine a bidder's responsibility once notified of the bidder's intention to bid. Neither section, however, requires the procurement officer to complete the responsibility determinationprior to bid opening3. Indeed, such a conclusion would needlessly limit the procuring agency's ability to conduct a thorough evaluation into a bidder's qualificationsto perform under the contract. The bidder would be required to comply with the material terms and conditions of the solicitation regardless of whether the responsibility determination is completed before or after bid opening4. Moreover, such a limitation would increase the
This conclusion is consistent with Regulation 3-401.04 of The Mode Procurement Codefor State and Local Governments, Recommended Regulations (American Bar Association)(l997) which provides: "Beforeawarding a contract, the Procurement Officer must be satisfied that the prospective contractor is responsible." (emphasis added). Thus, the bidder would not receive an unfair advantage over the other bidders. This should be contrasted with the determination of bid responsiveness: Responsiveness is determined by reference to when they are opened and not by reference to subsequentchanges in a bid. (citation omitted). Allowing a bidder to modify a nonresponsive bid when, upon opening the bids, it appears that the variations will preclude an award, would permit the very kind of bid manipulation and negotiation that the rule is designed to prevent. Otherwise bidders would be encouraged to submit nonresponsive bids on terms favorable to the government but subject to ce&n conditions, in the hope that if their bids were the top ones, they could then negotiate about and retain some of their proposed changes. In this way they could obtain a contract that they could not have received had they complied with the specification in the invitation for bids.
Tokyo Menka Kaisha, Ltd. v. UnitedStates, 597 F.2d 1371, 1376-77 (Ct. Cl1979). cited with approval in In the Matter of Southern Food Group, LP v. State of Hawaii, Department of Education, 89 Haw. 443, 457 (1999).
possibility of an erroneous responsibility determinationthat may lead to the rejection of a qualified bidder or the acceptance of an unqualified one. Such a result would be contrary to the Procurement Code's intentions of fostering "broad-based competition among vendors" and increasing the public's confidence in the integrity of the system. Senate Standing Committee Report No. S8-93, 1993 Senate Journal, at 39. Based upon these considerations, the Hearings Officer concludes that Respondent was not required to arrive at a responsibility determination prior to bid opening but rather, has up to the awarding of the contract within which to determine whether KNG was a responsible bidder5.
C. Standards of Responsibility.
Petitioner argues that in any event, KNG was and is not a responsible bidder
because it does not have the necessary business licenses and permits, employees, equipment,
and business office or other facilities. Respondent and KNG do not dispute this contention; rather Respondent and KNG assert that Respondent's responsibility determination of KNG was nevertheless properly based upon Respondent's finding that KNG had the "ability to obtain the resources" necessary for full performance of the contract.
HAR $3-1 22-109 relating to the S Q Q ~ , provides in relevant part:
Questionnaire. (a) The questionnaire shall request information for the following categories:
By virtue of the Notice of Intention to Bid requirement, HAR JJ3-122-108 and 3-122-110 enable the procurement officer to begin evaluating the qualificationsof potential bidders (including determining potential bidders to be nonresponsible) at the earliest possible time, presumably to expedite the awarding of the contract. Nevertheless, those sections do not require that the responsibility determination be completed prior to bid opening. On the other hand, tbe Hearings Wlicer's conclusion does not preclude the procuring agency &om determining a bidder to be responsible or nonresponsible prior to bid opening upon the receipt of information sufficient to make such a determination or the bidder's failure to provide that information within a reasonable time after a request for such information is made.
HRS JlO3D-3lO(b) states in relevant part:
Whether or not an intentian to bid is required, the procurement officer shall determine whether the prospective offeror has the financial ability, resources, skills, capability, and business integrity necessary to perform the work. For this purpose, the officer, in the officer's discretion, may require any prospective offeror to submit answers, under oath, to questions contained in a standard form of questionnaire to be prepared by the policy board.
(2) Material, equipment, facility, and personnel resources and expertise available, or the ability to obtain them, in order to meet contractual requirements;
* * * *
(Emphasis added). Moreover, the Recommended Regulations to The Model Procurement Code for State and Local Governments, Recommended Regulations (American Bar ~ssociation)(l997)',is instructive. Regulation 3-401.01provides that, "[a] determination of responsibility or nonresponsibility shall be governed by this Regulation." Regulation 3401.03 entitled, Ability to Meet Standards, states: The prospective contractor may demonstrate the availability of necessary financing, equipment, facilities, expertise, and personnel by submitting upon request: (a) evidence that such contractor possesses such necessary items;
(b) acceptableplans to subcontractfor such necessary
items; or (c) a documented commitment fiom, or explicit arrangement with, a satisfctory source toprovide the necessary items. (Emphasis added).
Based on these authorities and rnindfbl of the Procurement Code's purpose to
foster broad-based competition, the Hearings Oficer concludes that a bidder's responsibility may be established by a sufficient showing that it possesses the ability to obtain the resources necessary to perform its contractual obligations. In this regard, the procuring agency's determination will be given wide discretion and will not be interfered with unless the determination is unreasonable, arbitrary or capricious. See King Cold Storage Warehouse, Inc. v. New Orleans, 522 So.2d 169 (La. Ct. App. 1988).
'In enacting HRS Chapter 103D.the Legislature noted that "[alfter careful review of various procurement models and
thoughtful discussion and debate, your Committees agreed to use the American Bar Association's (ABA) Model
Following bid opening, Respondent requested that KNG complete a SQQ. The completed SQQ contained detailed information regarding the responsibility of KNG and its intended subcontractors, including background information; work experience; description of the required equipment; financial arrangements and commitments; work plan outline including a plan for obtaining the necessary permits and licenses; financial statements; a joint venture agreement; a proposed lease; and letters of recommendation. In a letter dated February 9,2000, KNG also informed Respondent that it had the necessary commitments to obtain the necessary equipment and had negotiated property leases. KNG also assured Respondent that it would be able to commence performance of the contract within 8 weeks. Moreover, as part of Respondent's evaluation of KNG's responsibility, the evidence indicated that Respondent checked with the City and County of Honolulu and was informed that the issuance of a license to collect refuse involved an inspection of the vehicles and that the process would take approximately one week. Under these circumstances, the Hearings Officer cannot say that Respondent's determination was clearly erroneous, arbitrary, capricious, or contrary to law8. Accordingly, the Hearings Officer concludes that Respondent's finding that KNG was a responsible bidder was in accordance with the applicable laws.
DECISION For the reasons set forth herein, it is hereby ordered that:
Petitioner's Protest is dismissed; and Each party shall bear its own attorney's fees, costs, and expenses.
Dated at Honolulu, Hawaii:
JUN - 8
Administrative Hearings Officer Department of Cormgerce and Consumer Affairs
Procurement Code for State and Local Governments as their guide in establishing a comprehensiveprocurement system for Hawaii. Standing Committee Report No. S8-93, 1993 Senate Journal, at 39.
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