Apple Compressor 3
By Brian Gary - Peachpit Press (2007) - Paperback - 209 pages - ISBN 032151422X
Whether you're distributing dailies, authoring a commercial DVD, or prepping video clips for the Web, Compressor is essential for creating quality digital content. In this quick-reference guide, professional filmmaker Brian Gary reveals essential techniques for audio and video compression. Learn timesaving batch-encoding and test-clip workflows. Import files in Final Cut Pro and QuickTime formats and encode them for authoring in DVD Studio Pro. Use advanced codecs like H.264 to create standa... Read more
Interface Basics: 1
Importing Footage: 19
Working with Presets: 31
Batch Encoding: 53
Encoding for DVD: 71
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Apple Compressor 3, size: 5.4 MB
Apple Compressor 3 Distributed Processing Setup
Apple Compressor 3 NEW Features
Apple Compressor 3
Apple Compressor 3: Introduction
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The Basic Transcoding Workflow
Compressor makes it easy to transcode media into multiple formats. In addition, Compressor is integrated into other applications, such as Final Cut Pro, Motion, and Soundtrack Pro. And Compressor generates high-quality assets for use in DVD Studio Pro, providing seamless transcoding between media formats directly within one application. For simple or repetitive workflows, you can also use the Share feature in Final Cut Pro and Motion. The Share feature is an easy one-click way to send your work to clients, friends, and other audiences without any advanced knowledge of transcoding, delivery file formats, or FTP protocols. From the Share window in Final Cut Pro and Motion, you can quickly create and deliver output media files in iPod, iPhone, Apple TV, MobileMe, DVD, Blu-ray Disc, and YouTube formats without having to open any additional applications. For more information about the Share feature, see the Final Cut Pro User Manual and the Motion User Manual. This chapter covers the following: Compressor Concepts and Terms (p. 29) Preparing Compressor for Transcoding with Custom Settings (p. 32) Choosing an Output Format (p. 34) Creating a Compressor Batch (p. 35) Viewing Transcoding Status (p. 37) Optional Compressor Shortcuts (p. 37)
Compressor Concepts and Terms
This section covers some common terms that you may encounter as you use Compressor.
The following diagram illustrates how the standard Compressor transcoding process works. The largest transcoding component is a batch. The batch represents all the components needed to transcode your current media. It must contain one or more jobs. A job consists of at least one source media file with one or more targets, each with a setting and a destination associated with it. After the transcoding process, the resulting file is known as the output media file. One output media file is created for each setting assigned to a source media file. In the illustration below, the batch contains two source media files, each of which is a job containing two targets (sets of a setting and destination). The total number of output files created by transcoding this batch will be four: Job 1 will create two output media files, as will Job 2.
About the Layout Files
If you have several workstations using Compressor, you might find that you want to be able to have the same layouts available on all of them. You can accomplish this by copying the layout files from one system to another, ensuring you put them in the correct location. The layouts are stored in the following path: Users/username/Library/Application Support/Compressor/Layouts. The layouts all have a.moduleLayout extension. Important: Do not manually add or remove the layout files while Compressor is open. Compressor checks this location for available layouts as part of its startup process. You must restart Compressor to have it recognize any changes you have made to these files.
Working with the Compressor Windows
While the standard and batch workflow layouts present the Compressor interface as a single large element, it is actually composed of a number of individual windows that can be positioned and sized to best suit your needs.
Why Are Some Windows Covered Up?
Because the Compressor interface is made up of individual windows, you may find that when you switch from Compressor to another application and then switch back to Compressor by clicking one of its windows, only that window appears, with the others remaining covered by other windows you might have open. To bring all Compressor windows to the front Do one of the following:
When switching between applications, take advantage of the built-in application switching feature of Mac OS X. Press Command-Tab to have an application selection dialog appear. As you hold down the Command key, you can press the Tab key to cycle through the currently running applications, releasing the Command key once the Compressor icon is selected. This ensures that all the Compressor windows are visible. Choose Window > Bring All to Front. Click the Compressor application icon in the Dock. Note: The Compressor toolbar, located along the top of the Batch window, makes it easy to navigate to the main Compressor windows and to Batch Monitor.
Resizing the Compressor Windows
All the Compressor windows can be resized with the exception of the Inspector window, which has a fixed size. Each window has a minimum size limit, both horizontally and vertically, that affects how small you can make the window.
To resize a window Drag the windows lower-right corner to stretch or compress the window horizontally or vertically.
Drag this corner to resize the window.
Note: As you reposition or resize a window, it will snap to a nearby window once you get close to it. This makes it easy to create a neat layout without gaps or overlaps.
About the Tabs
The Batch window and the Settings and Destinations tab window can have multiple tabs. The Batch window: When you are working with a large monitor and have several batches open, you might want to be able to see each of them in its own window. The Settings and Destinations tabs: By default, the Settings tab and the Destinations tab are located in the same window. You can choose to have each in its own window or to close one of the tabs. You can even choose to add any of the other windows (except the Batch window) as an additional tab to the window. In both cases, you can also control the order of the tabs. To move a tab to its own window by dragging 1 Drag the tab out of its current location.
2 Release the tab to have it appear in its own window.
To move a tab to its own window using a shortcut menu Control-click the tab and choose Tear Off Tab from the shortcut menu. The tab opens in its own window.
To add a tab from one window to another window by dragging 1 Drag the tab to the tab area of the window you want to add it to. A highlight appears around the tab area.
2 Release the tab.
It snaps to the tab area and its original window closes.
To add a tab from one window to another window by using a shortcut menu Control-click the tab area where you want the window to appear, and choose the tab from the list that appears in the shortcut menu. Note: This is the only method that allows you to add the History, Preview, or Inspector tabs to the window.
To change the order of the tabs in their current window Drag the tab left or right to its new position. The other tabs move to make room for it. Once you have the Compressor interface configured as you like it, you can save it as a layout. That makes it easy to restore the layout or to switch between it and other layouts. See Creating and Managing Compressor Layouts for more information.
When you first open Compressor, the Batch window appears. The Batch window allows you to import source media files for compressing, add settings and destinations, name the batch, and choose where you want to save it. The Batch window is where you place all source media files in preparation for transcoding. Note: Generally the Batch window is always showing. If you close it, it will reopen when you create a new batch (File > New Batch) or open an existing batch (File > Open). You can use the Compressor menu bar or the toolbar at the top of the Batch window to open all other windows. (If the toolbar isnt visible when you open Compressor, click the button in the upper-right corner of the Batch window to open it.)
Batch tabs Show/hide toolbar button
Batch submission button Batch status
The History window gives you quick access to and some information about previously submitted batches. You can use this window to pause a transcoding operation, resubmit batches by dragging them to the Batch window, or view submission details about particular batches. You can also use it to locate the output media files from previously submitted batches. The History window also contains a progress bar that you can use to monitor the status of previously submitted batches. To open and close the History window Do one of the following:
Choose Window > History (or press Command-1). Click the History button in the Batch window toolbar.
Note: The History window automatically opens if it is closed when you submit a batch for transcoding. The History window contains entries that display information about the batch name and the date and time it was originally transcoded. The entries are ordered by date, with the oldest first. When you drag a batch into the Batch window for resubmission, a new untitled batch is created for it (any existing batches are unaffected). For more information about the controls and settings in the History window, see About the History Window.
The Preview window consists of a split screen that displays your selected source media file in its original form on the left side, and what your output media file will look like on the right side. This allows you to make a comparison between the original and transcoded versions and adjust your settings as necessary. Using the options in this window, you can crop the frame, add key frames, and change the aspect ratio. To open the Preview window Do one of the following:
Choose Window > Preview (or press Command-2).
Click the Preview button in the Batch window toolbar.
Marker pop-up menu button
The Preview window has additional features, including a marker management pop-up menu. The marker management pop-up menu allows you to import chapter lists or manually add chapter (and podcast) markers and compression markers (to improve the compression quality of your media file). You can also view Edit/Cut compression markers that were generated in other applications such as Final Cut Pro. If you are sending a Final Cut Pro project to Compressor, these settings or markers are transferred with your project. These markers are also exported to DVD Studio Pro. See Working with MPEG-2 I-Frames and More About GOPs and Markers for more information. For more information about the controls and settings in the Preview window, see About the Preview Window.
Select the Auto launch Content Agent checkbox to have Content Agent open automatically when the computer is started. Deselect the Auto launch Content Agent checkbox to have Content Agent not open until Compressor is opened. Content Agent is a background process that Compressor uses to transfer source files to other nodes in an Apple Qmaster cluster and to receive the transcoded files back from those nodes. Generally, Content Agent is not needed until you are ready to submit a batch using distributed processing. There may be times, however, when having the Content Agent open automatically when the computer starts can help a transcode process. For example, if a computer loses power and automatically restarts while a large batch is being processed, having Content Agent restart can automatically get the transcode process to resume running. To control whether Compressor remains running after a batch has been submitted through it by another application (such as Final Cut Pro) Do one of the following:
Select Quit upon submitting batches from other applications to have Compressor quit once the batch has been submitted. Deselect Quit upon submitting batches from other applications to have Compressor continue running once the batch has been submitted. To control whether thumbnail images are displayed for each job in a batch Select Display job thumbnails to have Compressor display the images. Deselect Display job thumbnails to have Compressor not display the images.
To control cluster options (for distributed processing scratch storage settings) 1 Click the Cluster Options pop-up menu. 2 Choose one of the following. Copy Source to Cluster as Needed: Instructs Compressor to copy source files to a clusters scratch storage location as needed. Always Copy Source to Cluster: Requires Compressor to always copy source files to a clusters scratch storage location. Never Copy Source to Cluster: Prevents Compressor from copying source files. Never copy files to/from server: Prevents Compressor from copying any files. Either all the files are in the correct locations, or the batch fails.
To control whether Compressor transfers Source files to the processing cluster immediately Do one of the following:
Select Copy at submission (high priority) to have Compressor transfer source files immediately. Deselect Copy at submission (high priority) to prevent Compressor from transferring source files immediately. To control the default setting Use the Default Setting pop-up menu to choose from the list of existing settings. The setting you choose appears as the default setting when you import a new source file in the Batch window.
To change the default destination Use the Default Destination pop-up menu to choose from the list of existing destinations. The destination you choose appears as the default destination when you import a new source file in the Batch window.
To control whether Compressor displays the Batch Template Chooser on startup Select Show Template Chooser to display the Batch Template Chooser on startup. Select Use Blank Template to not display the Batch Template Chooser on startup.
Distributing and Sharing Settings
Both preexisting and newly created settings are stored in the home folder at /Users/username/Library/Application Support/Compressor as XML files, with the file extension.setting. You can distribute and share any of these settings by placing them into the same location within the home folder of whatever computer you distributed the settings to. You can also transfer these files the same way that you would distribute any other file, by emailing them as an attachment or placing them on a server. A quick and easy way to copy a setting is to simply drag the setting from the Settings tab to the Finder. From there, you can attach it to an email or copy it to another folder or volume.
To copy a setting directly from Compressor Drag one or more settings from the Settings tab to the Finder (to the Desktop, for example). Conversely, you can add a setting to Compressor by simply dragging from the Finder. To apply or add a setting to Compressor from the Finder Do one of the following:
Drag one or more settings from the Finder to the Custom group in the Settings tab. The settings appear in the Custom group in the Settings tab. Drag one or more settings from the Finder to an empty space in the Batch window. A new job appears with one or more target rows populated with the settings. Drag one or more settings from the Finder to an empty space on a job tile in the Batch window. One or more new target rows appear on the job, populated with the settings. You can also add settings to Compressor using Droplets. For more information, see Using Droplets to Create Jobs and Settings in Compressor.
Example: Creating Custom Groups and Settings for DVD
For this example, you are working on an HD project that will eventually end up on both an HD and an SD DVD. Before that happens, though, you also need to supply SD DVDs of the dailies. An easy way to handle this is to create two groups of settings. Settings for the dailies: These settings would include an AIFF audio encoder (since you want it done fast and disc space will not likely be an issue) and an MPEG-2 encoder with an SD frame size using the fastest settings (since quality is not the highest concern). This could also be an HD encoder if you have an easy way to play an HD DVD. Settings for the final disc: These settings would include an AC-3 audio encode, an H.264 HD for DVD video encode, and an MPEG-2 encode using the Frame Controls to ensure a high-quality SD output video. You would most likely create a third settings group that would be named after this project and would contain the above two groups. To create the groups for dailies and final outputs 1 In the Settings tab, click the Group button three times to create three new untitled groups. 2 Select the first of the new groups and, using the Inspector window, name it after the project. 3 Select the second of the new groups and name it Dailies.
To modify or enter a new output filename Click in the output filename area and edit the existing name, or triple-click the existing name to enter a new name.
The output filename
General Job and Target Information
This section provides general information about jobs and targets.
Targets contain three items: The setting The destination The output filename
Drag the dividers to expand a targets section and make it easier to see the entry.
The target Add and Delete buttons The output filename
You can use a variety of methods to add targets to a job. The most common is to add a setting or destination to the job. You can also use any of the following methods. To add an empty target to a job Do one of the following:
Select one or more jobs and choose Target > Add Target. This adds an empty target to the jobs. Select one or more jobs and Control-click in an empty area of one of them, then choose Target > Add Target. This adds an empty target to the jobs. Click the Add (+) button of an existing target. You can also copy one or more targets from one job to another.
To copy targets to another job by dragging 1 Select the targets to copy. 2 Press the Option key and then drag the targets to the new job. To delete targets Do one of the following:
Select one or more targets and press Delete. Click the Delete () button in a target.
About Adding and Copying Jobs
Jobs are most often created by adding source media files to a batch. You can use several other methods to add jobs to a batch. Additionally, you can chain jobs in a batch to set the order in which the files are transcoded once they are submitted.
To add an empty job to a batch Choose Jobs > New Job. To delete a job from a batch Select the job and press the Delete key. To copy jobs from one batch to another Do one of the following:
Open each batch in its own window and drag the jobs from one window to the other. Select the jobs to be copied, press Command-C, select the batch to copy them to, and then press Command-V.
About Chaining Jobs
Chaining jobs is useful when you need to apply multiple settings to a source media file, but need to have each setting applied after the previous one has finished. This makes it possible to control the order in which the settings are able to modify the source media file. To chain all targets in a job to new jobs 1 Select the job whose targets you want to chain to new jobs. 2 Choose Jobs > New Job With Target Output. New jobs are added to the batch with the chain thumbnail and the name of the output file of the targets they are chained to.
Compressor opens with the selected media file (the Final Cut Pro sequence) in the Batch window. 8 In Compressor, double-click the selected file and play it in the Preview window to verify the integrity of the clip. 9 In the Batch window, assign settings and destinations to the selected file as necessary. 10 Click the Submit button. The submit dialog appears. 11 Do one of the following: Choose the intended cluster from the Cluster pop-up menu. Select the Include unmanaged services on other computers checkbox to use the AutoCluster feature. See About AutoCluster and Unmanaged Services for more information. 12 Click Submit. Important: For best results, be sure Final Cut Pro is already open on the clusters computers. Apple Qmaster attempts to open Final Cut Pro if necessary; however, if the External A/V Device warning appears, Final Cut Pro will not open and cannot be used. Additionally, when using the AutoCluster feature, be aware that submitting a batch will cause Final Cut Pro to open on the computers providing the unmanaged services, which might surprise whoever is currently using the computers. To export a Final Cut Pro sequence as a QuickTime reference movie and submit it to Compressor for distributed processing using automatic file transfer 1 In Final Cut Pro, choose File > Export > QuickTime Movie. 2 In the Save dialog, make sure that the Make Movie Self-Contained checkbox is not selected. 3 Import the QuickTime reference movie into Compressor. (Drag it from the desktop to the Compressor Batch window.) 4 In the Batch window, assign settings and destinations to the selected file as necessary. 5 Click the Submit button. The submit dialog appears. 6 Do one of the following: Choose the intended cluster from the Cluster pop-up menu. Select the Include unmanaged services on other computers checkbox to use the AutoCluster feature. See About AutoCluster and Unmanaged Services for more information. 7 Click Submit. The Apple Qmaster distributed processing system automatically copies the appropriate media files to the cluster and processes the batch.
To export a Final Cut Pro sequence as a QuickTime reference movie and submit it to Compressor for distributed processing using preparatory steps to maximize performance 1 Make sure all the source media files and render files for your Final Cut Pro project are on a hard disk that can be shared (mounted) by all the computers in the cluster that will process the job. The following instructions use an example of a shared hard disk named Media1. If you copy all the media files to another hard disk for this purpose, you may need to reconnect the media files in Final Cut Pro before proceeding. Important: The hard disk you use to store the media files may not be a startup disk for any computer in the cluster. 2 In Final Cut Pro, choose File > Export > QuickTime Movie. 3 In the Save dialog, make sure that the Make Movie Self-Contained checkbox is not selected. 4 Save the QuickTime reference movie to the same hard disk (Media1) used to store media files in step 1. 5 Enable file sharing on the computer where the scratch disk (Media1) is located (in the Sharing pane of System Preferences, click Services and then select Personal File Sharing). 6 On each computer in the intended cluster, mount the hard disk (Media1) where the media files and QuickTime reference movie are located (in the Finder sidebar, click Network, navigate to the computer that contains the Media1 disk, click Connect, and select Media1). 7 In Compressor preferences, specify cluster options settings: a Choose Compressor > Preferences, or press Command-Comma (,). The Preferences window appears. b Choose Never Copy Source to Cluster from the Cluster Options pop-up menu. 8 Import the QuickTime reference movie into Compressor. (Drag it from the desktop to the Compressor Batch window.) 9 Double-click the file in the Batch window and play it in the Preview window to verify the integrity of the clip. 10 In the Batch window, assign settings and destinations to the selected file as necessary. 11 Click the Submit button. The submit dialog appears. 12 Do one of the following: Choose the intended cluster from the Cluster pop-up menu. Select the Include unmanaged services on other computers checkbox to use the AutoCluster feature. See About AutoCluster and Unmanaged Services for more information.
Compressor provides the tools you need to create DV files. Due to its low cost and wide availability, the DV video format is extremely popular for standard definition (SD) video capture and delivery. This chapter covers the following: About the DV Stream Encoder Pane (p. 153) DV Transcoding Workflow (p. 154)
About the DV Stream Encoder Pane
This section contains detailed information about the various settings within the DV Stream Encoder pane of the Inspector window. You make your DV settings by either modifying an existing setting or creating a new setting in the Settings tab.
The Automatic buttons for the Format, Aspect Ratio, and Field Order values
The DV Stream Encoder pane contains the following settings. Extension: This field displays the DV file extension (.dv) automatically after the DV Stream output format is selected from the File Format pop-up menu, or the (+) pop-up menu in the Settings tab.
Allow Job Segmenting: This checkbox allows you to turn off job segmenting. For more information, see Job Segmenting and Two-Pass or Multi-Pass Encoding. Format: Choose either NTSC or PAL as the output video format. Aspect Ratio: Choose either 16:9 or 4:3 as the output video aspect ratio. Note: The 16:9 aspect ratio uses anamorphic video. Field Order: Choose Bottom field first (required for interlaced DV video) with interlaced sources or Progressive with progressive sources.
DV Transcoding Workflow
How you use Compressor to transcode your video into DV Stream format files depends on how you intend them to be used. The basic steps are listed below. Stage 1: Creating a Batch As with any transcode, you need to start by creating a batch. See Preparing Compressor for Transcoding with Custom Settings for more information. Stage 2: Creating Jobs with the Source Audio Files Import the source video files either by dragging them from Finder to the batch or by choosing Job > New Job With File. Stage 3: Adding Targets with a DV Setting to Each Job Each of the jobs requires at least one targetin this case the jobs need targets with a DV Stream setting. If there is more than one job, it is easiest to select all the jobs by choosing Edit > Select All and then choose Target > New Target With Setting to apply the same setting to all the jobs. Stage 4: Submitting the Batch for Transcoding Click the Submit button to start the transcode process. See Submitting a Batch for more information.
Chapter 11 Creating DV Stream Output Files
Creating H.264 for Apple Devices Output Files
Using Compressor, you can create iTunes-compliant H.264 files. These can be played in iTunes, on an iPod, on an iPhone, or with Apple TV. The efficiency of the H.264 encoder makes it well suited to create media to use with iTunes and its related Apple devices. Compressor includes preconfigured settings that use the H.264 for Apple Devices Encoder pane to make it easy for you to create suitable media files. For information on creating H.264 files for DVD authoring, see Creating H.264 for DVD Studio Pro Output Files. For information on creating H.264 files for uses other than DVD authoring (such as web video), see Creating QuickTime Movie Output Files. This chapter covers the following: About the H.264 for Apple Devices Encoder Pane (p. 156) Chapter and Podcast Markers for Apple Devices (p. 160) Aspect Ratios for Apple Devices (p. 160) H.264 Workflows for Apple Devices (p. 161) Configuring Settings for H.264 for Apple Devices Output Files (p. 161)
About Standard Definition MPEG-2
Standard MPEG-2 is full frame rate (23.9829.97 fps) and full-screen resolution (720 x 480 for NTSC and 720 x 576 for PAL). MPEG-2 has the following characteristics. Support for interlaced video: MPEG-2 can support either interlaced or progressive video. Because MPEG-2 streams are generally played from a local DVD drive, rather than over a network with variable bandwidth, video frame rate usually stays constant, and the video normally looks completely smooth. No streaming support: MPEG-2 is not suitable for streaming video files over the web because it requires a high bit rate (2 to 9 Mbps) to maintain acceptable image quality. Note: The Compressor MPEG-2 encoder can create MPEG-2 video streams for the DVD-Video format. To create DVD-Video discs, you must use a DVD authoring application, such as DVD Studio Pro, in conjunction with Compressor.
About High Definition Sources and MPEG-2
Compressor has several different options and workflows for transcoding high definition (HD) video source files into MPEG-2 files.
HD on DVD
Compressor can output MPEG-2 files for creating HD-resolution DVDs from either HD or standard definition (SD) source media. Compressor can retain the various frame sizes and frame rates of high definition video when transcoding to MPEG-2. And Compressor supports the higher bit rates required by HD-based DVD formats. For more information on creating output for HD-based DVDs, see About the MPEG-2 Encoder Pane and the DVD Studio Pro User Manual. Note: The other output file format option for HD-based DVDs is H.264, also known as MPEG-4 Part 10. H.264 is currently mandatory in both new high definition DVD specifications (HD DVD and Blu-ray). For more information about creating H.264 files for HD on DVD, see Creating H.264 for DVD Studio Pro Output Files.
HD to SD Downconversion
For those situations in which you are editing high definition (HD) sources in Final Cut Pro and want to create a standard definition (SD) DVD from them, Compressor provides high-quality downconversion. Compressor retains as much detail as possible during scaling and correctly preserves progressive or interlaced formats when encoding to MPEG-2 for DVD. To see the source media resolution and frame rate 1 Import the source media file into the Batch window. 2 Click the sources name in the Batch window. The source media files resolution and frame rate, along with its duration, appear in the lower-left corner of the Preview window.
One pass CBR: Using this mode, the output MPEG-2 video streams bit rate is held approximately constant from one GOP to the next. This is the fastest Compressor MPEG-2 encoding mode, and it provides good to very good quality, especially at bit rates between 5 and 9 Mbps. One pass VBR: This VBR (variable bit rate) encoding mode aims to maintain constant quality (at the expense of constant bit rate) for the transcoded video file. This means that in scenes with much detail or fast motion, Compressor allows a higher bit rate than it allows in less detailed or still parts of the stream. In spite of this bit-rate variability, Compressor ensures your specified average bit rate is achieved accurately and that the maximum bit rate is not exceeded. Unlike the two-pass modes, one-pass VBR doesnt have a birds eye view of the source media prior to encoding, so its bit allocation is less optimized than two-pass VBR. Nonetheless, for most standard definition (SD) media files at bit rates of 3.5 Mbps and above, this mode provides good to excellent quality and transcodes quickly.
One pass VBR Best: This is similar to one-pass VBR, but with this mode, Compressor applies greater effort to its internal decision-making processes. Although one-pass VBR Best transcodes slower than one-pass VBR, it provides excellent to outstanding SD video quality at bit rates of 3 to 3.5 Mbps and above. Bit rates for HD MPEG-2 can range from 1029 Mbps average, 1229 Mbps maximum. Compared to one-pass VBR, one-pass VBR Best provides higher quality, especially for difficult material at low bit rates. For short streams of 1 to 2 minutes or less, if you are using one-pass VBR or one-pass VBR Best, the average bit-rate accuracy may be compromised by as much as 10 to 30 percent. Two pass VBR: In this mode, Compressor reads through the entire source video file twice. In the first of these passes, Compressor analyzes the entire source video stream prior to transcoding it to determine the degree of encoding difficulty of each scene. It then creates a bit-rate allocation plan that gives the higher bit rate to complex scenes and a lower bit rate to easy scenes, so as to average out to the specified average bit rate while ensuring that the specified maximum bit rate is not exceeded. In the second pass, Compressor does the actual compression, creating the MPEG-2 output video file according to its bit-rate allocation plan. As with one-pass VBR, the goal of two-pass VBR is constant quality rather than constant bit rate. Unlike one-pass VBR, two-pass VBR is able to establish an overview of where best to spend its bits across the entire source media file, before beginning the actual encoding. The result of this process is that transcoding time is almost twice that of one-pass VBR. Although the benefit is not twice the quality, two-pass VBR provides more consistent overall quality than one-pass VBR, especially in source media files where the difference between the most and the least complex scenes is substantial. Two pass VBR Best: This mode devotes more effort to its internal decision-making process than does two-pass VBR. Encoding time for Two pass VBR Best is slower than it is for Two pass VBR, but it provides the best possible quality that the Compressor MPEG-2 encoder has to offer. This mode provides outstanding quality at bit rates of 33.5 Mbps and above for standard definition (SD) video. See Job Segmenting and Two-Pass or Multi-Pass Encoding for information about using the two-pass modes with job segmenting. Average Bit Rate slider and field: Choose the average bit rate by dragging the slider or entering a number into the accompanying field. The range available to you depends on the Stream Usage setting. See Stream Usage for more information.
Creating QuickTime Movie Output Files
Compressor provides the tools you need to create QuickTime media files. QuickTime is cross-platform multimedia technology and allows Mac OS applications to capture and play back video, audio, and still-image files. QuickTime supports a wide variety of codecs and can also be extended to accommodate additional codec options and third-party codecs. See Creating QuickTime Export Component Output Files for more information about additional QuickTime export options. This chapter covers the following: Creating QuickTime Output Files (p. 235) About the QuickTime Movie Encoder Pane (p. 236) QuickTime Transcoding Workflow (p. 242) Understanding Codecs (p. 246) QuickTime Video Codecs (p. 246) QuickTime Audio Codecs (p. 247)
Creating QuickTime Output Files
QuickTime is an open standard with many built-in codecs and is both a multimedia and streaming media architecture. It is widely used for both authoring and delivery. For example, many video editing and compositing applications use QuickTime as their base format. QuickTime contains a wide range of video and audio codecs suitable for everything from streaming video to DVD. The QuickTime architecture can also handle file formats other than QuickTime movies, such as AVI files and 3G streams. For more information on creating those kinds of formats, see Creating QuickTime Export Component Files.
QuickTime Media Files for the Web
You can play your output media files over the web with QuickTime, once they are compressed to a data rate appropriate for the bandwidth you expect the users to have. You can do this by making your output media files either QuickTime Fast Start movies (pre-buffered download) or QuickTime Streaming movies. Compressor allows you to choose different streaming options via the Streaming pop-up menu in the QuickTime Encoder pane. See the Streaming pop-up menu item for more information about streaming QuickTime media files over the web.
About the QuickTime Movie Encoder Pane
The following options appear when you choose QuickTime Movie from the File Format pop-up menu:
File Extension field Streaming pop-up menu
Options button (dimmed)
QuickTime Movie Encoder Pane Basic Settings
Use these basic options to control the more specific QuickTime movie settings, below. File Extension field: This field displays the QuickTime file extension (.mov) automatically after the QuickTime output format is selected from the File Format pop-up menu or the (+) pop-up menu in the Settings tab. Allow Job Segmenting: This checkbox allows you to turn off job segmenting. It is relevant only if you are using Compressor with distributed processing and with multi-pass encoding. (The distributed processing feature is limited to computers that have Final Cut Studio installed.) For more information, see Job Segmenting and Two-Pass or Multi-Pass Encoding.
About the Destinations Tab
You use the Destinations tab together with the Inspector window to create, modify, or remove your destination settings and add file identifiers to your output media filename.
Duplicate button Default destinations Add and Remove buttons Default filename identifiers Filename Template pop-up menu Sample filename line
The Destinations tab contains the following items. Destinations list: This lists destination names and pathnames. There are four default destinations in the Apple folder: Source is the same folder from which the source media file originated; Desktop is the users Desktop folder; Users Movies Folder is the users Movies folder; Cluster Storage is a clusters scratch storage location. Note: Cluster Storage applies only to installations of Compressor that have distributed processing enabled. The distributed processing feature is limited to computers that have Final Cut Studio installed. Add (+): To create a local or remote destination, click this button and choose either Local or Remote from the pop-up menu. Local: If you choose Local, a file selection dialog appears in which you can select a destination folder. Remote: If you choose Remote, the Remote destination dialog appears. Enter FTP information concerning host name, file path, user, and password for accessing the remote location. You can also enter an iDisk location.
Chapter 27 Creating and Changing Destinations
Duplicate button: Makes a copy of the selected destination, placing it in the Custom folder. Using this option allows you to create a new destination from a preexisting destination, which you can then adjust according to your needs, rather than creating a new destination from scratch. Remove (-): Removes a selected custom destination from the Destinations tab immediately. You are not asked for confirmation, so be sure you want to remove the destination before clicking this button. Note: You cannot remove the destinations from the Apple folder.
About the Remote Destination Dialog
If you click the Add (+) button and choose Remote from the pop-up menu to add a remote destination, the Remote destination dialog appears.
Host Name is required. File Path is required.
Basic Components of the Apple Qmaster Distributed Processing System
While the Apple Qmaster software includes a few different applications (see Chapter 3, The Interfaces, on page 31), as a whole it is part of a networked system that includes the following basic components: Client(s): The computer or computers that use Compressor or Apple Qmaster to submit jobs for distributed processing. Applications that can use Apple Qmaster services for processing include Compressor, Shake, Alias Maya, and many UNIX command-line programs.
Preface Introduction to Distributed Processing
Apple Qmaster cluster, which contains: Service nodes: The computers that perform the processing of batches submitted via Compressor or Apple Qmaster. A batch can include one or more jobs. Cluster controller: The software, enabled on a computer by means of the Apple Qmaster pane in System Preferences, that divides up batches, determines which service nodes to send work to, and generally tracks and directs the processes.
Client computer from which users send jobs to the cluster
Cluster (can contain multiple service nodes, but only one cluster controller) Cluster controller manages the distribution of clients jobs across the cluster
Service node processes jobs
The client computer, the service nodes, and the cluster controller are often on separate (but network-connected) computers, for the most rapid processing potential. However, the cluster controller could be on a client computer or a service node. See Using One Computer to Serve Two Distributed Processing Roles on page 22 for more information on this scenario. Following is a closer look at the part each component plays in the Apple Qmaster system.
Batches are submitted for distributed processing from the client computers. A client computer can be any computer that has Compressor or Apple Qmaster installed and is on the same network (subnet) as the cluster controller. Multiple client computers can be on the same subnet, using the same cluster to do the processing for various applications. You use Compressor or the Apple Qmaster application to submit batches to be processed for a client. See the Compressor User Manual and the Apple Qmaster User Manual for details on using these applications.
When a client sends batches to the Apple Qmaster distributed processing system, all the processing and subsequent moving of any output files is performed by a group of Apple Qmasterconfigured computers called a cluster. You can create one or more clusters of service nodes, with one cluster controller included in each cluster. Each computer in the cluster is connected to the other computers in the cluster through a network connection.
The AutoCluster feature in Compressor gives you an easy way to take advantage of the distributed processing capabilities offered by Apple Qmaster without requiring a lot of knowledge about how clusters are configured, setting up file sharing, and so on. For more information about AutoClusters, see Using Compressor AutoClusters on page 23.
How the Apple Qmaster System Distributes Batches
The Apple Qmaster cluster controller determines the most efficient use of the cluster resources. It makes this determination based on the availability of each service node and the number of separable parts (described next) of the batch. Because Apple Qmaster subdivides individual batches across different service nodes, the work is shared and completed more quickly. And, because this method uses all the service nodes as much as possible, you avoid under-utilizing your resources.
Batches can be distributed to a cluster by the cluster controller in one or both of the following ways. (Apple Qmaster determines which way is the most efficient for specific batches, depending on the circumstances.) The batch is subdivided into data segments: For example, for a render batch, the cluster controller could divide the frames into groups (segments). Each segment would be processed in parallel on the service nodes in the cluster. The batch is subdivided into tasks: For example, for a render batch, the cluster controller could subdivide the rendering work into different processing tasks. Different tasks would be run on different service nodes. Rather than actually moving segments, Apple Qmaster tells the service nodes which segments to read via the network, where to find them, and what to do with them. Below is an example of how one batch could be processed in an Apple Qmaster system.
Batch submitted by Compressor or Apple Qmaster (job request for frames 130)
Cluster controller divides and distributes job to available service nodes
Instructions specifying locations of source files and frames 0110
Instructions specifying locations of source files and frames 1120
Instructions specifying locations of source files and frames 2130
Service node 1
The steps below describe the simplest and quickest way to start using distributed processing. Step 1: Install the software Install the appropriate software on the computers you want to include in your distributed processing network. Each computer in the network will require Apple Qmaster and/or Compressor software. To install the software: 1 Make sure the client software is on at least one computer in your network. In order to submit jobs and batches to the distributed processing system, you will need to run client (submission) software (either Compressor or Apple Qmaster). If you are reading this, you have probably already installed one or both of these. For further information, see the installation booklet that came with either of these applications. 2 Install Apple Qmaster software on each computer you want to use for distributed processing. (All computers must be on the same subnet.) By default, the Final Cut Studio installer will install Apple Qmaster software necessary for distributed processing.
However, in most standard distributed processing networks, you will need to install Apple Qmaster software on every computer in the network. You can use the standalone Apple Qmaster Node Installer to install the Apple Qmaster software on additional computers on your network. a Locate the folder containing the Apple Qmaster software: If you are using Compressor, insert the Final Cut Studio installation disc and locate the Apple Qmaster Node Installer package (AppleQmasterNode.mpkg). If you are using Shake, insert the Shake 4 installation disc and locate the Apple Qmaster Node Installer package (AppleQmasterNode.mpkg). b Do one of the following: Double-click the AppleQmasterNode.mpkg installer package, and follow the onscreen instructions. By default, this installer will install all the necessary Apple Qmaster software. Install Apple Qmaster software from the command line. See Installing Apple Qmaster from the Command Line on page 67 for more information.
About the Compressor Service Sharing Pane
Both the Final Cut Studio installer and the Apple Qmaster Node Installer include the Compressor Service Sharing pane, in which you can quickly set up the computer as an unmanaged service node. Selecting the Yes option in this pane is the first of two steps in setting up AutoClusters in Compressor. An AutoCluster is a temporary QuickCluster which you create automatically when you submit a batch. For more information about AutoClusters, see Using Compressor AutoClusters on page 23. Note: You can change any of these settings at a later time in the Apple Qmaster pane in System Preferences. If you are unsure which role each computer will play in your network, just install the Apple Qmaster software on each computer in your network. You can sort out the details later. See Basic Components of the Apple Qmaster Distributed Processing System on page 6 for additional information on what roles individual computers can play in the distributed processing system.
Step 2: Submitting Compressor Batches for Processing
When you submit a Compressor batch for processing, a dialog appears that allows you to name the batch and select the computers to process the batch. At this point, you can harness the processing power of all the computers you set up as service nodes in Step 1 to complete the batch.
To process the batch using AutoCluster 1 Leave the Cluster pop-up menu set to the default selection (This Computer). 2 Select the Include unmanaged services on other computers checkbox. Compressor and Apple Qmaster will coordinate the distribution of the processing tasks between the available computers and deposit the resulting output files at the location(s) you designated in Compressor.
Other Possible Components of a Distributed Processing Network
There are many ways to expand the capacity of a distributed processing network. You could include any of the following: High-speed switch and cables: A 100BaseT or Gigabit Ethernet switch and compatible cables to allow your data to move over the LAN at maximum speed. Multiple clients: Multiple client computers can use the services of the same cluster. And, you can have multiple client applications on the same client computer, using the same cluster. Multiple clusters: Depending on how extensive your network is and how many clients it needs to serve, you may want to divide up available computers and create more than one cluster to serve various clients. (Users select the cluster they want to send a batch to when they submit the batch.) Multiple service nodes: In general, more service nodes means more processing power. In deciding how many service nodes to have in a cluster, consider the ratio of data movement time to computing time. If the processing demand is greater than the network demand required to move job segments throughout the cluster, as is the case with rendering, more service nodes are a good idea. If the computing load, per job, is closer to the network load, having a smaller number of service nodes per cluster may be more efficient. If you are using the Apple Qmaster distributed processing system with applications other than Shake or Compressor, consult the applications user manual on how to optimize the number of service nodes. Storage device: A storage device, such as a remote disk or group of disk arrays, can be used as cluster scratch storage, which is a place for short-term storage of temporary data generated by the cluster controller, clients, and service nodes. (You set the scratch storage location in the Apple Qmaster pane in System Preferences. See Cluster Storage: Setting a Scratch Storage Location on page 62.) Alternatively, a storage device can be used as a final destination for the files after they are processed. Many of these items are incorporated in the example that follows.
Instead of one individual interface, the Apple Qmaster distributed processing system includes up to four different applications and utilities for configuring, monitoring, and managing services.
This chapter introduces the following elements of the Apple Qmaster distributed processing system: The Interfaces in the Apple Qmaster Distributed Processing System (p. 31) Apple Qmaster Pane in System Preferences (p. 33) Apple Qadministrator (p. 35) Client Interfaces: Compressor and Apple Qmaster (p. 37) Batch Monitor (p. 39)
The Interfaces in the Apple Qmaster Distributed Processing System
The Apple Qmaster system is a suite of applications that work together to provide maximum power and flexibility for distributed processing. The elements of the system can be combined in a variety of different ways to suit your needs.
In general, you use the Apple Qmaster pane in System Preferences to configure service nodes and cluster controllers, and to create simple clusters. System administrators use Apple Qadministrator for advanced cluster creation and control. Next, client users use Compressor or Apple Qmaster to submit batches of jobs for processing. Then, the Batch Monitor can be used by both administrators and client users to monitor batches.
System Preferences Apple Qadministrator
Users: Administrators Use to: Create service nodes and cluster controllers QuickCluster
Users: Administrators Use to: Assemble clusters of service nodes and cluster controllers
Compressor or Apple Qmaster
Users: Administrators and client users Use to: Monitor batches that have been sent to clusters
Users: Client users Use to: Submit jobs to clusters for processing
Note: It is possible to create a simple (personal) distributed processing system and skip Apple Qadministrator altogether. See Apple Qmaster Pane in System Preferences (next) and About QuickClusters on page 53 for more information.
Chapter 3 The Interfaces
Apple Qmaster Pane in System Preferences
Use the Apple Qmaster pane in System Preferences to activate, create, or make changes to Apple Qmaster cluster-controlling and processing services (including passwords and scratch storage locations).
Use Apple Qmaster System Preferences to configure service nodes and cluster controllers:
For details about using the Apple Qmaster pane in System Preferences, see: Configuring Service Nodes and Cluster Controllers on page 42 Using Virtual Clusters to Make the Most of Multiprocessor Computers on page 49 Setting a Service Password for Including a Computer in a Cluster on page 62 Cluster Storage: Setting a Scratch Storage Location on page 62 Also see the Apple Qmaster User Manual for more information, including creating an extended node cluster which uses nodes without Apple Qmaster installed.
To open the Apple Qmaster pane in System Preferences: 1 Open System Preferences. 2 Click the Apple Qmaster button, located in the Other section. The Apple Qmaster pane appears.
Use the Apple Qadministrator application to create and modify Apple Qmaster clusters. Apple Qadministrator can be used on any computer that is on the same network as the cluster you want to administer. With the administrative password (if one was created), you can also use Apple Qadministrator to see and modify existing clusters on the network.
Use Apple Qadministrator to assemble clusters:
Drag available service nodes to assign them to a cluster.
For details about using Apple Qadministrator, see: Creating Clusters with Apple Qadministrator on page 50 Modifying and Deleting Clusters With Apple Qadministrator on page 58 Monitoring Cluster Activity on page 59 Setting Cluster Preferences on page 60 Setting Cluster Administrator and User Passwords on page 61
To open Apple Qadministrator: m Double-click the Apple Qadministrator icon in the Applications folder. The Apple Qadministrator window appears. If a password was created for the currently selected cluster, you will not be able to see or modify the cluster until you click the Lock button and then enter the password in the dialog that appears.
Client Interfaces: Compressor and Apple Qmaster
Client computer users use either Compressor, or the interface called Apple Qmaster, to submit batches for processing.
Use Compressor to submit a batch to a cluster:
Use Apple Qmaster to submit a batch to a cluster:
Use the Cluster pop-up menu in the Compressor Batch window to choose a cluster for any given batch. For more information on submitting batches with Compressor, see the Compressor User Manual. To open Compressor: m Double-click the Compressor icon in the Applications folder. The Compressor default window layout appears.
Using Apple Qmaster
For Shake processing batches, you can drag Shake files into the Apple Qmaster window. A default script for submitting the jobs is automatically created. In Apple Qmaster, you can then specify certain details, such as which cluster to use, and make adjustments to certain settings. For Maya batches, there is also a special interface within Apple Qmaster for submitting and customizing Maya jobs. You can use the Generic Render command in Apple Qmaster for the distributed processing of projects from other frame-based rendering applications (such as After Effects and LightWave). For complete information about the Apple Qmaster application, see the Apple Qmaster User Manual.
Enabling Unmanaged Services on QuickClusters Follow these steps to enable unmanaged services on QuickClusters. 1 Open the Apple Qmaster pane of System Preferences. 2 Select the QuickCluster with services button to create a QuickCluster. 3 Click Include unmanaged services.
4 Click Start Sharing. For more information on creating QuickClusters, see Getting Started Quickly on page 15 and About QuickClusters on page 53. Enabling Unmanaged Services on Managed Clusters Follow these steps to enable unmanaged services on Managed Clusters. 1 Select a cluster in the Cluster list, or click the Add (+) button to add a new cluster. 2 Click Allow use of unmanaged services. For more information on creating managed clusters, see Creating Clusters with Apple Qadministrator on page 50. To set the type of processing service: In the Apple Qmaster pane in System Preferences, do one of the following with the checkbox in the Managed column: m For managed services, select the checkbox. m For unmanaged services, deselect the checkbox. Note: If processing services are enabled, you must turn them off before you can adjust the processing service type.
To turn off processing services 1 In the Apple Qmaster pane in System Preferences, click Stop Sharing. 2 In the dialog that appears, enter the number of minutes you want processing services to continue before shutting down, then click OK.
The default is 0 minutes, but you can enter a different number in the field. If you enter any number greater than 0, a countdown appears next to the Cancel button. The shutdown delay is provided because some computers may be in the middle of processing batches, and these could be damaged by a premature shutdown. 3 In the Services section, do one of the following: Deselect the On checkbox for Compressor Processing (to turn off Compressor services). Deselect the On checkbox for Rendering (to turn off Apple Qmaster services).
Turning Cluster Controller Services On or Off
Use the Services pane in the Apple Qmaster pane in System Preferences to turn the cluster controller on or off on a specific computer. To turn on cluster controller services: 1 Open the Apple Qmaster pane in System Preferences. 2 Optionally, you can configure a number of settings before you turn on the processing services. (See Options in the Apple Qmaster Pane in System Preferences on page 45.) Note: Its easiest to do this now because you cant make these settings when processing services are enabled. To make these settings after services have been enabled, you need to turn off the services, make the settings, and then turn the services on again. 3 In the Share this computer as section, select one of the following buttons: QuickCluster with services: Choose this option to create an instant cluster with unmanaged services. Services and cluster controller: Choose this option to build a cluster in Apple Qadministrator. (See Creating Clusters with Apple Qadministrator on page 50 for more information.) Also see Managed Vs. Unmanaged Services on page 46 for more information. 4 In the Share column, select the checkbox. 5 Click Start Sharing. The cluster is enabled, making this computer a cluster controller.
Setting Passwords and Scratch Storage
You can create several different types of passwords for the Apple Qmaster distributed processing system. All these passwords are optional; you can use the system without creating them. Cluster administrator password: A password required for modifying a cluster in Apple Qadministrator, and for modifying the status of the clusters batches in the Batch Monitor. See Setting Cluster Administrator and User Passwords, next. Cluster user password: A password that client users will need in order to submit batches to a cluster and to modify the status of those batches in the Batch Monitor. See Setting Cluster Administrator and User Passwords, next. Service password: A password required for an administrator to add a specific service node or cluster controller to a cluster. See Setting a Service Password for Including a Computer in a Cluster on page 62. You can also change the default scratch storage location for a cluster, or for each computer in a cluster. See Cluster Storage: Setting a Scratch Storage Location on page 62.
Setting Cluster Administrator and User Passwords
You can create cluster passwords while creating a new cluster, as described in Creating Clusters with Apple Qadministrator on page 50. However, once the cluster is created, you can still add or change passwords, using the same settings in Apple Qadministrator. To create or change cluster passwords: 1 In Apple Qadministrator, select the cluster from the Cluster list. 2 Click Security. 3 Select and enter or change the passwords you want.
4 Click Apply Changes. Note: Cluster administrator and cluster user passwords can be stored in a users keychain.
Setting a Service Password for Including a Computer in a Cluster
If you want to control who is able to include a specific service node or cluster controller in a cluster, you can create a password called a service password for the computer. Note: A service password can be stored in a users keychain. To set a service password: 1 On the computer designated as the service node or cluster controller, open the Apple Qmaster pane in System Preferences. 2 If any Apple Qmaster services are enabled on this computer, temporarily turn them off by clicking Stop Sharing. 3 Click Require Password. The password sheet opens.
The appendix includes the following topics: Installing Apple Qmaster from the Command Line (p. 67) Shell Commands for Configuring Service Nodes and Cluster Controllers (p. 68) Shell Commands for Submitting Compressor Jobs (p. 69) Shell Commands for Submitting Apple Qmaster Jobs (p. 71) Shell Commands for Monitoring Batches (p. 73) Note: While it is possible to use the command line to run an Apple Qmaster distributed processing network, each Compressor service node (each computer providing Compressor distributed processing services) must be logged in (with a Mac OS X user name and password) for full functionality.
Installing Apple Qmaster from the Command Line
Follow these steps to install Apple Qmaster software on each computer you want to use for distributed processing. (All computers must be on the same subnet.) 1 Copy the standalone installer package (AppleQmasterNode.mpkg) to the remote system. Note: Do not alter the file hierarchy of the packages. 2 Log into the remote system. 3 Enter the following command:
sudo installer -pkg AppleQmasterNode.mpkg -target /
Apple Qmaster processes start automatically after installation.
4 Optionally, do one of the following to start the Apple Qmaster processes: Enter this command:
sudo SystemStarter start Qmaster
Restart the remote computer. 5 Repeat these steps for each computer in your distributed processing network. You can also install Apple Qmaster using Apple Remote Desktop. Just select a node, click Install Package, and select the standalone installer package (AppleQmasterNode.mpkg). The copy and installation process is done automatically.
Shell Commands for Configuring Service Nodes and Cluster Controllers
As an alternative to using the Apple Qmaster pane in System Preferences, you can use the command qmasterprefs, with command-line options for enabling and disabling service node and cluster-controlling services. In the command-line descriptions below, angle brackets < > indicate a mandatory argument in a command and brackets [ ] indicate an optional argument. Note: While it is possible to use the command line to run an Apple Qmaster distributed processing network, each Compressor service node (each computer providing Compressor distributed processing services) must be logged in (with a Mac OS X user name and password) for full functionality. Synopsis Below is a synopsis of the command for enabling and disabling cluster-controlling services on a computer. The qmasterprefs command is located in /usr/sbin.
qmasterprefs -cluster <on | off> [-timeout <minutes>] [-servername <name>] [-list] [-help]
Below is a synopsis of the command for enabling and disabling service-node processing on a computer.
qmasterprefs -service Unix Processing <on | off> [-instances <n>] [-timeout <minutes>] [-servername <name>] [-list] [-help]
Appendix A Command-Line Usage
Command options This table provides information about each of the enabling and disabling service-node and cluster-controlling services on a computer.
Preference command option
[-cluster] <on | off>
Description Turns cluster-controlling services on or off. [timeout min] [servername name] [quickcluster on | off ] [unmanagedservices on | off ] [unmanagedmulticapturethreshold sec] [networkinterface allinterfaces | <bsd name>] Turns UNIX Rendering services on or off. [timeout min] [instances n] [autorestart on | off ] [unmanaged on | off ] Lists the current qmasterprefs settings. Displays information about supported options for qmasterprefs. Restarts Apple Qmaster services. Sets service options.
[-service Rendering] <on | off>
[-list] [-help] [-restart] [-service name options]
Shell Commands for Submitting Compressor Jobs
You can run the Compressor application from the command line using the Compressor command, with a number of command-line options for submitting jobs. In the command-line descriptions below, angle brackets < > indicate a mandatory argument in a command and brackets [ ] indicate an optional argument. Synopsis Below is a synopsis of the command for submitting a job to a cluster. The Compressor command is located in /Applications/Compressor.app/Contents/MacOS.
Compressor [-clustername <name>] [-clusterid <username:password@ipaddress:portNumber>] [-batchfilepath <path>] [-batchname <batchname>] [-priority <value>] [-jobpath <path>] [-settingpath <path>] [-destinationpath <path>] [-info <xml>] [-timeout <seconds>] [-help] [-show]
In this example, -jobpath, -settingpath, and -destinationpath can be repeated as many times as the number of jobs you want to submit. Note: Not all the options are necessary. For example, you can specify the cluster either by its -clustername or by its -clusterid. You do not need to specify both. If both are specified, only -clusterid is used. Additionally, if you specify -batchfilepath, then -jobpath, -settingpath, and -destinationpath are not necessary because the previously saved batch file already contains information about the job, settings, and destination.
Example of Compressor Command XML The code below is an example of XML code for submitting a Compressor command. Notice that because it needs to be entered as one command line, every character after -options that isnt alphanumeric must be preceded with a backslash (\).
./Compressor -clusterid tcp://127.0.0.1:51737 -batchname myBatch -jobpath /Volumes/Source/ShortClips/NTSC24p.mov -settingpath /Users/stomper10 /Library/Application\ Support/Compressor/PhotoJPEG.setting destinationpath /Users/machinename/Movies/myDestinationFilename.mov.
This command has the following elements: Cluster address is tcp://127.0.0.1:51737. Batchname is myBatch. Job path is /Volumes/Source/ShortClips/NTSC24p.mov. Setting path is /Users/stomper10/Library/Application Support/Compressor/ PhotoJPEG.setting. Destination path is /Users/machinename/Movies
Shell Commands for Submitting Apple Qmaster Jobs
You can use the Apple Qmaster command, Apple line options for submitting jobs.
a number of command-
In the command-line descriptions below, angle brackets < > indicate a mandatory argument in a command and brackets [ ] indicate an optional argument. Synopsis Below is a synopsis of the command for submitting a job to a cluster. The Apple command is located in /Applications/Apple Qmaster.app/Contents/MacOS.
Apple Qmaster[-clustername <name>] [-clusterid <user name:password@IP address:port number>][-command <command type> -options <XML command> [-wd <working directory>] [-timeout <seconds>] [-show] [-batchname <name>] [-help]
Once the job is submitted successfully, this command displays the batch ID (identifier) and job ID (identifier) in the shell.
Command options This table provides information about each of the command options for submitting jobs.
Submission command option [-clustername <name>] Description Use to specify the name of the cluster to which you want to send the job. Using the cluster name, Apple Qmaster looks for the cluster on the network in order to use it. Use to specify a name for the batch so that you can easily recognize it in the Batch Monitor. Optionally, you can use -clusterid to enter the cluster ID and port number instead of using -clustername. (When you enter the cluster ID and port, less time is required to find the cluster on the network.) Or, if you used -clustername and the cluster requires a password, use -clusterid to specify the user name and password. (You need to include the IP address: port number as well whenever you use -clusterid.) Tip: Use Apple\ Qmaster -show to see a clusters IP address and port number. Specifies the kind of command you are entering: Shell, Shake, Maya, or other command, depending on the application you want to use for distributed processing. Specifies the command with XML code. Enter the XML code after -options, with the necessary qualifiers for entering it in a shell. See Example of Shake Command XML, next, for an example. If no -option is entered, the values from the applications preferences file, in ~/Library/Preferences, are used (which are the values of the most recent job submitted). Use to specify the working directory path (from which the command should be executed). The default working directory is /Applications/Shake. Use to specify the number of seconds before Apple Qmaster can quit when looking for a cluster. The default value is 0, which puts no limit on the timeout and allows Apple Qmaster to browse the network for as long as it needs to find the cluster. Shows the ID information for the cluster specified with -clustername or -clusterid, or for all clusters if no cluster is specified. Displays information about supported options for Apple Qmaster.
data segments 10 deleting items clusters 59 desktop rendering environment 2730 disk arrays 25 distributed processing 56 expanded example 26 installing software 1517, 28 introduction 5 managed services 46 network configuration 2130 part-time 2730 quick and easy steps 1519 simple example 22 unmanaged services 46 distribution, batches 910 domains 60 dual processors 4950
email notification 60, 66
failure notification 60, 66 files log 66 Maya 38 sharing 29 temporary 6263, 64
history, batch 60 History table 60
installing Compressor/Apple Qmaster 28
storage locations for 25, 6263, 64 tracking 7 processing defined 8 desktop processing environment 2730 distributed part-time 2730 expanded network for 26 installing software 1517, 28 quick and easy steps 1519 submitting batches for 30 processing services distributed processing 56 failure alerts 60, 66 running dual instances 4950 service failure 65 time allotted for 48, 49 turning off 48 turning on 43
jobs command line options 69 jobs. See batch jobs
Qadministrator. See Apple Qadministrator Qmaster. See Apple Qmaster qmaster prefs command 68 QuickCluster configuring 1718 QuickClusters about 9, 53 Apple Qadministrator 58 creating 53 enabling unmanaged services 47 extended node clusters 54 managed vs. unmanaged services 46
lock icon 52 log files 66
mail server 60 managed services 46 manual, about 11 Maya batches 38 media storage volumes 29
recovery features 6566 rendering defined 8 Rendering services 43 turning off 48
networks. See Apple Qmaster networks
passwords 6162 administrator. See administrator password cluster administrator 51, 61 cluster controllers 51 clusters 36, 51 cluster users 51, 61 computers 52 service 61, 62 users 51 Personal File Sharing 29 preferences Apple Qmaster. See Apple Qmaster pane in System Preferences clusters 60 processes directing 7
scratch storage 25, 45, 6263, 64 security passwords. See passwords servers See also computers distributed processing and 26 mail 60 rack of 26 service exceptions 66 service nodes adding to clusters 18, 58 assigning to clusters 52 clients as 22 as cluster controllers 22 configuring with Apple Qmaster 4250 configuring with shell commands 6869
creating 43 described 7 dual processors 4950 enabling/disabling 6869 illustrated 7 inaccessible 8 multiple 25 overloaded 8 overview 8 passwords 62 processing services 4748 processing stops unexpectedly 65 turning off processing services 48 turning on processing services 43, 48 Service Options dialog 50 service passwords 61, 62 Services pane 48 Shake installing distributed processing 29 media file locations 30 script locations 30 source files 28 startup.h file 29 UNC setting 29 shell commands 6874 shutdown delay 48, 49 storage devices 25 submitting batches
command line options 69 subnet 7, 10 switches, high-speed 25, 26 System Preferences 17, 3334
tasks 5, 6, 10 See also batches Terminal shell commands 6776
unmanaged services 46 enabling on managed clusters 47 enabling on QuickCluster 47 user mode, Batch Monitor 40 users cluster 51, 61 passwords 51, 61
websites Apple 12 Apple Store 13
XML code 71, 73
Whether you're distributing dailies, authoring a commercial DVD, or prepping video clips for the Web, Compressor is essential for creating quality digital content. In this quick-reference guide, professional filmmaker Brian Gary reveals essential techniques for audio and video compression. Learn timesaving batch-encoding and test-clip workflows. Import files in Final Cut Pro and QuickTime formats and encode them for authoring in DVD Studio Pro. Use advanced codecs like H.264 to create standard- and high-definition content. Compress content for the latest hardware platforms, including AppleTV, iPod, and HD DVD. Export interactive podcasts. Add timecode window burns and animated logos during encoding. Take advantage of job-management strategies, such as job chaining. And save time with Compressor's ability to handle hours of encoding unattended and then notify you by email when it's done. With this guide you'll master the art of minimizing file size and maximizing image quality.
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