Holux GR-213 Manual
Holux GR-213, size: 519 KB
Holux GR 213U Quick Start Guide
With low power consumption, the GR-213 tracks up to 20 satellites at a time, re-acquires satellite signals in 100 ms and updates position data every second. Support NMEA 0183 v2.2 data protocol and SiRF data protocol. Compatible with XP/Windows 2000, Linux and Mac.
Part Number: GR-213
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User reviews and opinions
|pfandler||3:56am on Monday, October 25th, 2010|
|I have used five of these now in boat navigation laptops for myself and friends. Very fast lockup.|
|aurelio_rs_araujo||12:07pm on Thursday, September 30th, 2010|
|Holux gps i tried others including cable usb gps devices but this puts them to shame, fast & more accurate. A lovely little tough device I have been using this for the last few years on three different nokia (smart) phones and my trusty palm pda (T3).|
|lux||6:55am on Sunday, July 11th, 2010|
|Garmin A/C Power Cable The Garmin A/C Power Cable for the nuvi Portable GPS Navigators works as described.|
|bgawert||10:58pm on Sunday, May 30th, 2010|
|A lovely little tough device I have been using this for the last few years on three different nokia (smart) phones and my trusty palm pda (T3).|
|Guilmon||9:10am on Monday, May 24th, 2010|
|Holux GR-213 Perfect. The right size and does everything you would want in a GPS receiver.|
|rla128||1:19am on Sunday, May 9th, 2010|
|The Garmin GPS-18 was my first GPS ever. Contains all the features of other GPS costing $100s more Need a bulky laptop to go with it I travel a lot for my job. Accurate - Voice Prompts None|
Comments posted on www.ps2netdrivers.net are solely the views and opinions of the people posting them and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of us.
Mar. 17, 2005
1F.No 30, R&D Rd. II. Hsinchu City, Science-based Industrial Park Taiwan Phone: +886-3-6687000 Fax: +886-3-6687111 E-Mail: email@example.com Web: www.holux.com.tw All Right Reserved
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction.... 3 1.1 Overview..... 3 1.2 Features..... 3 1.3 Technology specifications.... 3 1.3.1 Physical Dimension..... 3 1.3.2 Environmental Characteristics.... 3 1.3.3 Electrical Characteristics.... 3 1.3.4 Performance..... 3 2. Operational characteristics.... 4 2.1 Initialization..... 4 2.2 Navigation.... 4 3. Hardware interface..... 5 3.1 Dimension.... 5 3.2 Hardware Interface.... 5 3.3 Connector..... 5 3.3.1 Function definition of PS-2 female composite connectors... 6 3.4 Accessories.... 6 3.5 Optional Cigarette Adapter.... 7 4. USB Driver.... 7 4.1 System Requirements.... 7 4.2 Installation.... 7 4.3 Important..... 8 5. Software Interface.... 8 5.1 NMEA Transmitted Messages... 8 NMEA Record..... 8 5.1.1 Global Positioning System Fix Data (GGA)... 8 5.1.2 Geographic Position with Latitude/Longitude(GLL).. 9 5.1.3 GNSS DOP and Active Satellites (GSA)... 9 5.1.4 GNSS Satellites in View (GSV).... 10 5.1.5 Recommended Minimum Specific GNSS Data (RMC).. 10 5.1.6 Course Over Ground and Ground Speed (VTG)... 11 6. Earth Datums..... 12 6.2.1 Manufacturing Default:.... 13 6.2.2 Datum change syntax:.... 13 7. Ordering Information.... 14 Explanation of product Number.... 14 8. Warranty..... 14
The HOLUX GR-213 Smart GPS Receiver is a total solution GPS receiver, designed based on SiRF Star III Architecture. This positioning application meets strict needs such as car navigation, mapping, surveying, security, agriculture and so on. Only clear view of sky and certain power supply are necessary to the unit. It communicates with other electronic utilities via compatible dual-channel through RS-232 or TTL and saves critical satellite data by builtin backup memory. With low power consumption, the GR-213 tracks up to 20 satellites at a time, re-acquires satellite signals in 100 ms and updates position data every second. Trickle-Power allows the unit operates a fraction of the time and Push-to-Fix permits user to have a quick position fix even though the receiver usually stays off.
The GR-213 provides a host of features that make it easy for integration and use. 1. SiRFstarIII chipset with embedded ARM7TDMI CPU available for customized applications in firmware 2. High performance receiver tracks up to 20 satellites while providing first fast fix and low power consumption. 3. Differential capability utilizes real-time RTCM corrections producing 1-5 meter position accuracy. 4. Compact design ideal for applications with minimal space. 5. A rechargeable battery sustains internal clock and memory. The battery is recharged during normal operation. 6. User initialization is not required. 7. Dual communication channels and user selectable baud rates allow maximum interface capability and flexibility. 8. Optional communication levels, RS-232 and TTL meet ordinary application and new fashions of connecting PDA with TTL or RS-232 output. 9. FLASH based program memory: New software revisions upgradeable through serial interface. 10. LED display status: The LED provides users visible positioning status. LED ON when power connected and BLINKING when GR-213 got positioned. 11. Built-in WAAS Demodulator. 12. Water proof design for industry standard.
1.3 Technology specifications
1.3.1 Physical Dimension
Single construction integrated antenna/receiver. Size: 64.5 x 42 x 17.8 (mm) 2.54" x 1.65 x 0.7 (Inch).
1.3.2 Environmental Characteristics
1) Operating temperature: -40oC to +80oC(internal temperature). 2) Storage temperature: -45oC to +100oC.
1.3.3 Electrical Characteristics
1) Input voltage: +4.5 ~ 5.5 VDC without accessories. 2) Backup power: 3V Rechargeable Lithium cell battery, up to 500 hours discharge.
1) Tracks up to 20 satellites. 2) Update rate: 1 second. 3) Acquisition time Reacquisition 0.1 sec., averaged Hot start 1 sec., averaged Warm start 38 sec., averaged 3
Cold start 42 sec., averaged 4) Position accuracy: A) Non DGPS (Differential GPS) Position 5-25 meter CEP without SA Velocity 0.1 meters/second, without SA Time 1 microsecond synchronized GPS time B) DGPS (Differential GPS) Position 1 to 5 meter, typical Velocity 0.05 meters/second, typical C)EGNOS/WAAS/Beacon Position < 2.2 meters, horizontal 95% of time < 5 meters, vertical 95% of time 5) Dynamic Conditions: Altitude 18,000 meters (60,000 feet) max Velocity 515 meters / second (700 knots) max Acceleration 4 G, max Jerk 20 meters/second, max
1) Dual channel RS-232 or TTL compatible level, with user selectable baud rate (4800-Default, 9600, 19200, 38400). 2) NMEA 0183 Version 2.2 ASCII output (GGA, GSA, GSV, RMC, option GLL, VTG, ZDA). 3) Real-time Differential Correction input (RTCM SC-104 message types 1,2 and 9). 4) SiRF binary protocol.
2. Operational characteristics
As soon as the initial self-test is complete, the GR-213 begins the process of satellite acquisition and tracking automatically. Under normal circumstances, it takes approximately 42 seconds to achieve a position fix, 38 seconds if ephemeris data is known. After a position fix has been calculated, information about valid position, velocity and time is transmitted over the output channel. The GR-213 utilizes initial data, such as last stored position, date, time and satellite orbital data, to achieve maximum acquisition performance. If significant inaccuracy exists in the initial data, or the orbital data is obsolete, it may take more time to achieve a navigation solution. The GR-213 Auto-locate feature is capable of automatically determining a navigation solution without intervention from the host system. However, acquisition performance can be improved as the host system initializes the GR-213 in the following situation: 1) Moving further than 500 kilometers. 2) Failure of data storage due to the inactive internal memory battery.
After the acquisition process is complete, the GR-213 sends valid navigation information over output channels. These data include: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Latitude/longitude/altitude Velocity Date/time Error estimates Satellite and receiver status
The GR-213 sets the default of auto-searching for real-time differential corrections in RTCM SC-104 standard format, with the message types 1, 5, or 9. It accomplishes the satellite data to generate a differential (DGPS) solution. The host system, at its option, may also command the GR-213 to output a position whenever a differential solution is available.
3. Hardware interface
s ta r
3.2 Hardware Interface
The GR-213 includes an antenna in a unique style waterproof gadget. Simply connect PS-2 female connector to one of the accessories linking to your notebook PC, PDA or other devices. The one-piece cigarette adapter allows you to connect GR-213 to your PDAs. Optional color, input voltage and output connector are listed and described below:
The GR-213 is equipped with optional connectors. 5
Cable Length: 2 meter
3.3.1 Function definition of PS-2 female composite connectors
Signal Pin RS-232 RS232+TTL 1 Tx TX(RS232) 2 +5VDC +5VDC 3 NC Tx(TTL) 4 Ground Ground 5 DGPS IN Rx(TTL) 6 Rx RX(RS232) N. C. = No Connection
3.4.1 CA-RS232: DB 9 pins Female and PS-2 male connector:
Cable Length: To GR-213: 1 meter RS-232 to PS-2: 45 cm 126.96.36.199 DB 9 pins Female connector function definition: Pin 1 Signal Name N.C
2 Tx 3 Rx 4 N.C N.C 7 N.C 8 N.C 9 DGPS in N.C = No connection
188.8.131.52 PS2 composite connector function definition:
Pin Signal Name 1 +5V 2 N.C 3 N.C 4 Ground 5 N.C 6 N.C N.C = No connection
3.4.2 Cigarette adapter and PDA connector:
reference section 7.2
3.4.3 CA-USB: USB connector
The USB A Type is equipped with GR-213. The function definition is as follows:
Pin 3 4
Signal Name +5V D+ DGround
High power connector
Color Black Red Green White Orange
Signal Ground +6~30VDC Tx Rx DGPS IN
Optional Cigarette Adapter
The optional cigarette adapter is with 2-meter cable for using in a car or boat. Input voltage: DC12V - 26V
4. USB Driver
4.1 System Requirements
IBM, Pentium or above and other compatible PC; 16 MB and above memory; Windows 98/Me/2000; VGA Graphic Adapter.
1. Copy entire <GR-213 USB> folder from CD to hard disk. 2. Connect GR-213 USB connector to computer. While the computer automatically starts the installation program, please direct the driver to the <GR-213 USB> folder. 7
3. After the installation is complete, go to <Device Manager> and select <Ports (COM & LPT)> to verify if a virtual COM port <USB to Serial Port> was created.
Verify the COM port # to start using your own navigating software. 1. Click <Start> menu, select <Settings>, then enter <Control Panel>. 2. After entering <Control Panel>, select <System>. 3. Select <Device Manager>. 4. Find the <Connect port> and check the Virtual COM Port, which was created by the USB driver, Please note that the Virtual COM Port number might be different from every computer. Before using navigating software, please confirm the COM Port numbers created by your computer and provided by your navigation software. Otherwise, the navigating software wont receive the satellite signal, because of the un-match COM Port setting.
5. Software Interface
The GR-213 interface protocol is based on the National Marine Electronics Association's NMEA 0183 ASC interface specification, which is defined in NMEA 0183, Version 2.2 and the Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services (RTCM Recommended Standards For Differential Navstar GPS Service, Version 2.1, RTCM Special Committee No.104, Type 1,2,9) or WAAS (in USA area) or EGNOS (in European area).
5.1 NMEA Transmitted Messages
The GR-213 supported by SiRF Technology Inc. also outputs data in NMEA-0183 format as defined by the National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA), Standard. The default communication parameters for NMEA output are 4800 baud, 8 data bits, stop bit, and no parity. Table 5-1 NMEA-0183 Output Messages NMEA Record Description GPGGA Global positioning system fixed data GPGLL Geographic position- latitude/longitude GPGSA GNSS DOP and active satellites GPGSV GNSS satellites in view GPRMC Recommended minimum specific GNSS data GPVTG Course over ground and ground speed
5.1.1 Global Positioning System Fix Data (GGA)
Table 5-2 contains the values for the following example: $GPGGA,161229.487,3723.2475,N,12158.3416,W,1,07,1.0,9.0,M, , , ,0000*18 Table 5-2 GGA Data Format Name Example Message ID $GPGGA UTC Time 161229.487 Latitude 3723.2475 N/S Indicator N Longitude 12158.3416 E/W Indicator W Position Fix Indicator 1 Satellites Used 07 HDOP 1.0 Units Description GGA protocol header hhmmss.sss ddmm.mmmm N=north or S=south dddmm.mmmm E=east or W=west See Table 5-3 Range 0 to 20 Horizontal Dilution of Precision 8
MSL Altitude Units Geoid Separation Units Age of Diff. Corr. Diff. Ref. Station ID Checksum <CR> <LF> 9.0 M M 0000 *18 End of message termination Meters Meters Meters Meters second Null fields when DGPS is not used
Table 5-3 Position Fix Indicator Value Description Fix not available or invalid 1 GPS SPS Mode, fix valid 2 Differential GPS, SPS Mode, fix valid 3 GPS PPS Mode, fix valid
5.1.2 Geographic Position with Latitude/Longitude(GLL)
Table 5-4 contains the values for the following example: $GPGLL,3723.2475,N,12158.3416,W,161229.487,A*2C Table 5-4 GLL Data Format Name Example Message ID $GPGLL Latitude 3723.2475 N/S Indicator N Longitude 12158.3416 E/W Indicator W UTC Position 161229.487 Status A Checksum *2C <CR> <LF> Units Description GLL protocol header ddmm.mmmm N/S Indicator N N=north or S=south dddmm.mmmm E=east or W=west hhmmss.sss A=data valid or V=data not valid End of message termination
5.1.3 GNSS DOP and Active Satellites (GSA)
Table 5-5 contains the values for the following example: $GPGSA,A,3,07,02,26,27,09,04,15, , , , , ,1.8,1.0,1.5*33 Table 5-5 GSA Data Format Name Example Message ID $GPGSA Mode 1 A Mode Satellite Used(1) 07 Satellite Used(1) 02 Satellite Used PDOP 1.8 HDOP 1.0 VDOP 1.5 Checksum *33 <CR> <LF> 1. Satellite used in solution. 9 Units Description GSA protocol header See Table 5-6 See Table 5-7 Sv on Channel 1 Sv on Channel 2. Sv on Channel 20 Position Dilution of Precision Horizontal Dilution of Precision Vertical Dilution of Precision End of message termination
Table 5-6 Mode 1 Value M A Table 5-7 Mode 2 Value 3 Description Manualforced to operate in 2D or 3D mode 2DAutomaticallowed to automatically switch 2D/3D
Description Fix Not Available 2D 3D
5.1.4 GNSS Satellites in View (GSV)
Table 5-8 contains the values for the following example: $GPGSV,2,1,07,07,79,048,42,02,51,062,43,26,36,256,42,27,27,138,42*71 $GPGSV,2,2,07,09,23,313,42,04,19,159,41,15,12,041,42*41 Table 5-8 GSV Data Format Name Example Message ID $GPGSV Number of Messages 2 Message Number 1 Satellites in View 07 Satellite ID 07 Elevation 79 Azimuth 048 SNR (C/No) 42. Satellite ID 27 Elevation 27 Azimuth 138 SNR (C/No) 42 Checksum *71 <CR> <LF> Units Description GSV protocol header Range 1 to 3 Range 1 to 3 Range 1 to 12 Channel 1 (Range 1 to 32) Channel 1 (Maximum 90) Channel 1 (True, Range 0 to 359) Range 0 to 99, null when not tracking Channel 4 (Range 1 to 32) Channel 4 (Maximum 90) Channel 4 (True, Range 0 to 359) Range 0 to 99, null when not tracking End of message termination
degrees degrees dBHz degrees degrees dBHz
NOTE: Items <4>,<5>,<6> and <7> repeat for each satellite in view to a maximum of four (4) satellites per sentence. Additional satellites in view information must be sent in subsequent sentences. These fields will be null if unused.
5.1.5 Recommended Minimum Specific GNSS Data (RMC)
Table 5-9 contains the values for the following example: $GPRMC,161229.487,A,3723.2475,N,12158.3416,W,0.13,309.62,120598, ,*10 Table 5-9 RMC Data Format Name Example Message ID $GPRMC UTC Time 161229.487 Status A
Description RMC protocol header hhmmss.sss A=data valid or V=data not valid 10
Latitude 3723.2475 ddmm.mmmm N/S Indicator N N=north or S=south Longitude 12158.3416 dddmm.mmmm E/W Indicator W E=east or W=west Speed Over Ground 0.13 knots Course Over Ground 309.62 degrees True Date 120598 ddmmyy Magnetic Variation(1) degrees E=east or W=west Checksum *10 <CR> <LF> End of message termination 1. SiRF Technology Inc. does not support magnetic declination. All course over ground data are geodetic WGS84 directions.
5.1.6 Course Over Ground and Ground Speed (VTG)
Table 5-10 contains the values for the following example: $GPVTG,309.62,T, ,M,0.13,N,0.2,K*6E Table 5-10 VTG Data Format Name Example Units Description Message ID $GPVTG VTG protocol header Course 309.62 degrees Measured heading Reference T True Course degrees Measured heading Reference M Magnetic(1) Speed 0.13 knots Measured horizontal speed Units N Knots Speed 0.2 km/hr Measured horizontal speed Units K Kilometers per hour Checksum *6E <CR> <LF> End of message termination 1. SiRF Technology Inc. does not support magnetic declination. All course over ground data are geodetic WGS84 directions.
5.1.7 ZDASiRF Timing Message
Outputs the time associated with the current 1 PPS pulse. Each message will be output within a few hundred ms after the 1 PPS pulse is output and will tell the time of the pulse that just occurred. Table 5-11 contains the values for the following example:
Table 5-11 ZDA Data Format Name Example Message ID $GPZDA UTC Time 181813 Day Month Year Local zone hour Local zone hour Checksum <CR> <LF> 00 4F
Description ZDA protocol header Either using valid IONO/UTC or estimated from default leap seconds 01 TO TO to 2079 Offset from UTC (set to 00) Offset from UTC (set to 00) End of message termination
5.2 RTCM Received Data
The default communication parameters for DGPS Input are 9600 baud, 8 data bits, stop bit, and no parity. Position accuracy of less than 5 meters can be achieved with the GR-213 by using Differential GPS (DGPS) real-time pseudo-range correction data in RTCM SC-104 format, with message types 1,2, or 9. As using DGPS receiver with different communication parameters, GR-213 may decode the data correctly to generate accurate messages and save them in battery-back SRAM for later computing.
6. Earth Datums
6.1 Earth Datums
The following is a list of the GR-213 earth datum index and the corresponding earth datum name: Item Datum Adindan - Ethiopia Afgooye Somalia Alaska, Conus North American 1983 Albania S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) Argentina Australia Bahrain Ain el ABD 1970 Bangladesh Bolivia Botswana ARC 1950 Brazil Brunel, East Malaysia Canada North American 1983 Chile Colombia Colombia Provisional American 1956 Czechoslovakia S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) Ecuador European 1950 Central Regional Mean European 1950 Cyprus European 1950 Eastern Regional Mean European 1950 Egypt European 1950 Finland, Norway European 1950 Greece European 1950 Iran European 1950 Italy (Sardinia) European 1950 Italy (Sicily) European 1950 Malta European 1950 Northern Regional Mean European 1950 Portugal, Spain European 1950 Southern Regional Mean European 1950 Tunisia European 1950 Western Regional mean Guyana - South American 1969 Hawaii-North American 1983 Hong Kong Hu_Tsu_Shan Taiwan Hungary S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) Indian 1960 Ireland - 1965 Kazakhstan S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) Kenya, Tanzania- ARC 1960 Reference Ellipsoid Clarke 1880 Krassovsky GRS 1980 Krassovsky 1940 South American 1969 Australian National International Everest 1830 South American 1969 Clarke 1880 South American 1969 Everest (Sabah & Sarawak) GRS 1980 South American 1969 South American 1969 International Krassovsky 1940 South American 1969 International International International International International International International International International International International International International International International South American 1969 GRS1980 International International Krassovsky 1940 Everest 1830 Modified Airy Krassovsky 1940 Clarke 1880 Data name Data1.dat Data2.dat Data3.dat Data63.dat Data4.dat Data70.dat Data5.dat Data6.dat Data8.dat Data7.dat Data9.dat Data37.dat Data10.dat Data13.dat Data12.dat Data11.dat Data64.dat Data14.dat Data29.dat Data15.dat Data16.dat Data17.dat Data18.dat Data19.dat Data20.dat Data21.dat Data22.dat Data23.dat Data24.dat Data25.dat Data26.dat Data27.dat Data28.dat Data30.dat Data32.dat Data31.dat Data33.dat Data65.dat Data34.dat Data35.dat Data65.dat Data53.dat 12
71 Latvia S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) Liberia 1964 Mexico, central America OMAN Pakistan Paraguay - South American 1969 Peru1 South American 1969 Philippines Poland S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) Potsdam Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Qatar national Qornoq Greenland (SOUTH) Regional Mean Reunion Mascarene Islands Romania S-42 (Pulkovo 1942) Rome 1940 Italy Saudi Arabia Ain el Abd 1970 Singapore South Africa Thailand 1975 Tokyo_Japan Tokyo_Korea Tokyo_Mean Tokyo_Okinawa Trinidad, Tobago Venezuela Venezuela Provisional American 1956 WGS84 Krassovsky 1940 Clarke 1880 GRS1980 Clarke 1880 Everest 1830 South American 1969 South American 1969 Clarke 1866 Krassovsky 1940 Bessel 1841 Clarke 1866 International International South American 1969 International Krassovsky 1940 International International Modified Fischer 1960 Clarke 1880 Everest 1830 Bessel 1841 Bessel 1841 Bessel 1841 Bessel 1841 South American 1969 South American 1969 International WGS84 Data67.dat Data36.dat Data38.dat Data39.dat Data40.dat Data42.dat Data41.dat Data43.dat Data68.dat Data71.dat Data44.dat Data45.dat Data46.dat Data48.dat Data47.dat Data69.dat Data49.dat Data50.dat Data51.dat Data52.dat Data54.dat Data60.dat Data61.dat Data59.dat Data62.dat Data55.dat Data57.dat Data56.dat Data58.dat
6.2 Setting Syntax
6.2.1 Manufacturing Default:
Datum: WGS84. Baud Rate: 4800. Output: GGA, GSA, GSV, RMC.
6.2.2 Datum change syntax:
>DOS\Sirfprog /Fdataxx.dat Px Bx Csh1 -Px: x is com port, 1= COM1, 2 = COM2 -Bx: Baud rate, 4800, 9600, 19200 or 38400 Example: Change Datum to WGS84, Sirfprog /Fdata58.dat P1 B4800 Csh1 <Entry> After changing datum, the new datum will be kept in SRAM. If no power supplied to GR-213 for more than 30 days, user must re-set datum when power on.
7. Ordering Information
7.1 Product Options
Explanation of product Number
G R 213 XX Y
(1) (2) (3)
Model name:GR-213 XX: Color option Y: Output Type option 1: RS232+TTL 2: RS232 + DGPS
Option Accessories type(1)
GR-213-XX-1 RS-232+TTL GR-213-XX-2 RS-232+DGPS (1) Option Accessories type reference section 7.2
7.2 Accessories type
Type Name CA-RS232 CA-USB CA-6V30V A-20005 USB connector High power connector, 6-30VDC 12V-26V Cigarette Adapter /Charger Function description Convertible cable, Comport, 5VDC input.
The GR-213 is warranted to be free from defects in material and functions for one year from the date of purchase. Any failure of this product within this period under normal conditions will be replaced at no charge to the customers.
ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ISSN ELEKTRONIKA IR ELEKTROTECHNIKA
2009. No. 6(94)
Accuracy Estimation of GPS Receiver Parameters with Simulator in Dynamic Mode
A. Kluga, A. Zelenkov, E. Grab, V. Belinska
Department of Transport Electronics and Telematics, Riga Technical University, Lomonosova iela 1, V korpuss, LV-1019, Riga, Latvia, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Introduction As is described in [1, 2], in order to estimate GPS user device parameters in dynamic mode, a special signal simulator must be used. This article describes testing results when using Satellites Signal Simulator STR4500. For accuracy estimation in the dynamic mode we used different brand devices. The measurements of parameters were implemented in room environments with metallized window glass, as well as in the SAC3 camera, where walls absorb electromagnetic waves. For testing purposes special scenarios for the mobile object movement were generated. The accuracy of the position fix and velocity changes when the parameters of movement change. This article reveals some of results for the natural experiments as well. The accuracy estimation of a GPS receiver parameters in dynamic mode shows that in order to increase the accuracy of the GPS user device in dynamic mode, a complex system (including inertial motion unit) must be used. The accuracy estimation of users device by using signal simulator STR4500 in dynamic mode and with the change of signal receiving possibility Garmin eTrex device The GPS satellite system signals of the STR4500 simulator were used for simulation in dynamic mode, when users coordinates change as it is shown in Fig. 1a and Fig. 1b. There also are shown measured coordinates of four types of user devices (Graymark GPS-101 red and white, Holux GR-213 and Magellan eXplorist 600). As we can see, the values of simulated coordinates (Etalon) and measured coordinates are almost equal. The next experiment with use of this scenario was following: between signal simulator antenna and receiving antenna of the user device we put metallic screen, so that the signals were blocked. The results (for one coordinate Longitude) of measurements for three kinds of receivers are shown in Fig. 2. As we can see, measurement system parameters of these receivers are very different. The has no signal integration possibilities and signal blocking leads to data loss. The Graymark GPS-101 device has one integrator and the information is considered to be constant during the time of signal unavailability.
56.938 56.9375 L A T IT U D E 56.937 56.9365 56.936 56.9355
500 GPS-101 red
1000 Samples GPS-101 white
25 24.9 24.8 LO NG IT UDE 24.7 24.6 24.5 24.4 24.500 GPS-101 red 1000 Samples GPS-101 white Holux Magellan Etalon 2500
b) Fig. 1. The mobile object movement scenario (Etalon) for Latitude: a Longitude; b measured coordinates for user devices of different kind
c) Fig. 2. The results of Longitude measurements for three kinds of user devices when the signal is not available for 10 minutes: a eTrex; b GPS-101; c Holux
The Holux GR-213 device has two integrators and when the satellites signals are blocked the information changes with velocity that was determinate before by the device. The same results we have for latitude. In the Fig. 3 there are results for Graymark GPS-101.
Fig. 3. The results of Latitude measurements for user device GPS-101, when the signal is not available for 10 minutes
The accuracy of position fix and object velocity measurements The accuracy measurements of the position fix and object virtual velocity were made when different GPS devices received the signals of the STR4500 simulator instead of the real GPS satellites signals of the ReReference system described in . In this case, the accuracy of the object position fix was estimated by mean radial error p in the horizontal plane and Root Mean Square deviation RMS p of this error. The movement speed accuracy was estimated by increments of Latitude and Longitude orthogonal 10
coordinates calculated to position fix over time interval between these two neighbour samples. Then, based on the data of the GPS receiver protocol, we calculated the object velocity vector and its modulus. The same operations were applied to reference data of the simulated scenario in order to calculate a reference velocity vector and its modulus. The estimation of the velocity measurement accuracy was made by calculating difference between modulus of the measured velocity vector and modulus of the reference velocity vector. We calculated mean speed error s and Root Mean Square deviation RMS s over these difference samples. For error calculations we used the position fix algorithm described earlier in . The plots of the reference velocity samples over time extracted from the simulator scenarios are broken lines with 5 intervals and total length of 21502900 seconds. The first interval (varies in range of 200 to 800-850 seconds, depending on scenario and start time of the receiver) has velocity of zero (static). In the second interval (180 sec or 300 sec long, depending on scenario) the velocity increases by linear law from 0 to 180 km/h (the acceleration is 0.2(7) m/sec2) when length of interval is 180 sec. If the length of the interval is 300 sec, the velocity increases by linear law from 0 to 800 km/h (the acceleration is 0.74(074) m/sec2). The velocity in the third interval (600 seconds long) is constant 180 km/h or 800 km/h, depending on scenario. In the fourth interval the velocity decreases with the same law and over same time interval as it was in the second interval. In the fifth interval the velocity is zero (static mode) and length of the interval is 900 seconds (unconditionally). The object movement is simulated with two described velocity profiles (01800 km/h and 08000 km/h) with one of two directions from Riga: either strictly to the North (along the meridian) or strictly to the East (along the parallel). Note that in the beginning of the first interval there is possibility to get very unstable measurement results, since the GPS receiver enters the tracking mode and leaves seek mode and that leads to a transient process. The part of the first interval occupied by this instability can vary, depending on GPS receiver kind (in general, its manufacturer. Some of the GPS receivers (for example, Graymark GPS-101) nearly has no the transient process caused by entering the tracking mode. That may be observed from behaviour (and magnitude) of the radial error plot over time. In order to minimize an influence of the transient process, the data processing computer program allows blocking the beginning of the measured and reference data files for prescribed number of samples, specified by the SHIFT parameter. For example, in the Fig.4 there are results for the Holux GR-213(09) GPS receiver for two scenarios, when an object moves along parallel with velocity profiles of 180 km/h and 800 km/h. For the velocity measurement beginning, SHIFT=1 (not zero!). Note, that latitude and longitude samples are written with T=1 sec period for Graymark GPS-101 and Holux GR-213 (both 09 and 10 the last two digits of serial number). For Garmin GPS-72 and Garmin eTrex GPS receivers latitude and longitude data is written every T=2
sec. The total number of processed scenarios is scenarios for each velocity profile, 12 when moving along the parallel (variable longitude) and 10 when moving along the meridian (variable latitude). The analysis of these results shows that movement of object affects the accuracy of position fix and velocity measurement. However, this influence depends on the kind of GPS receiver.
Table 1. Graymark GPS-101, 180 km/h, latitude Interval s , km/h RMS s , km/h number 1 1.46008e-02 0.-6.79178e-04 0.-5.33634e-03 0.-6.59587e-03 0.3.38475e-02 0.13599
The mean measurements error of the velocity in the 2-nd, the 3-rd and the 4-th intervals is decreasing, when there are dynamics of the object. The error decreases by order and more, compared to the 1-st and the 5-th intervals, where are no vehicle dynamics. The values of radial error RMS p and velocity error RMS s are weakly dependent on vehicle dynamics. In the same time, the behaviour of the current values for position fix error and velocity error changes over time, and it depends on the interval.
Table 2. Graymark GPS-101, 180 km/h, latitude Interval p, m number 1 184.108.40.206.1.02568 p, m
RMS p , m
0.13666 0.06886 0.14206 0.05011 0.04841
The best results were observed for Graymark GPS101 and Garmin eTrex receivers. However, we should add, that Garmin eTrex occasionally had failures in the measurement results. Graymark GPS-101, in the same time, has always been showing stable working after the end of the transient process. The mean value of radial error for Graymark GPS-101 depends in no obvious way on fact of velocity both in 180 km/h and 800 km/h velocity profiles.
s , km/h
b) Fig. 5. Current values for: a) radial error (meters) and b) velocity error (km/h) for the receiver Graymark GPS-101 when the object is moving along the meridian with velocity profile 180 km/h (SHIFT=20)
b) Fig. 4. The law of the velocity changes for Graymark GPS-101 in two velocity profiles: a 180 km/h; b 800 km/h. The object moves along the parallel variable longitude (SHIFT=1)
The position fix and velocity error mean values and RMS in the 1-st to the 5-th intervals, when Graymark GPS101 virtually moves along the meridian with velocity 180 km/h are shown in the Tables 1 and 2. The plots of errors over time for profiles of 180 km/h and 800 km/h are shown in Fig. 5, 6 (respectively). The values of mean radial error p of position fix for 800 km/h velocity profile remain within the same range of 1-2 meters. 11
The values of mean velocity error s in 800 km/h velocity profile are the same as were in 180 km/h profile over the 2-nd, the 3-rd and the 4-th intervals the order of these values is e-3 to e-4. Over the 1-st and the 5-th intervals the order of these values is e-2. The RMS p is about 2-3 times greater (0.117 m 0.283 m). The RMS s in 800 km/h profile nearly remains in the same range of 0.14 km/h 0.285 km/h.
decreasing to 0, the radial error greatly increases due to the acceleration from 1-3 m to 6-11 m (in 800 km/h velocity profile up to 18-25 m). In the 1-st, the 3-rd and the 5-th intervals, where the velocity is either zero (the 1-st and the 5-th intervals), or constant (3-rd interval), the radial error is significantly decreased and it doesnt exceed value of 3 meters.
b) Fig. 6. Current values for: a) radial error (meters) and b) velocity error (km/h) for the receiver Graymark GPS-101 when the object is moving along the meridian with velocity profile 800 km/h (SHIFT=20)
b) Fig. 7. Current values for: a) radial error (meters) and b) velocity error (km/h) for the receiver Holux GR-213(09) when the object is moving along the parallel with velocity profile 180 km/h (SHIFT=1)
Table 3. Holux GR-213(09), 180 km/h, longitude Interval s , km/h RMS s , km/h number 1 2.28743e-2 0.-1.23125e-3 0.3.84223e-2 0.1.25518e-3 0.3.49267e-2 0.12358 Table 4. Holux GR-213(09), 180 km/h, longitude Interval p, m RMS p , m number 1 1.97650 0.4.65123 1.2.62875 0.6.38951 1.2.21920 1.02040
Absolutely different behaviour over time (and greater values) have radial errors and velocity errors of Holux GR213 (09 and 10) kind GPS receivers. This can be observed by comparing, for example, plots of radial error over time in Fig. 5, a, 6, a and Fig. 7, a, 8, a, respectively (180 km/h and 800 km/h velocity profiles). In the first case (Fig. 5,6), the results are for movement along the meridian, and in the second case (Fig. 7, 8) for movement along the parallel. When moving over these orthogonal coordinates with given directions, the plots of errors over time are similar to ones shown earlier, and mean numerical characteristics are also close. So we didnt include these results. Numerical characteristics s , p , RMS s and RMS p for Graymark GPS101 and Holux GR-213 GPS receivers can be compared by analyzing Tables 1, 2 and Tables 5, 6, respectively. By observing plots from Fig. 7, 8, we can see that radial error of Holux GR-213 GPS receivers unambiguously depends on the presence of an acceleration and its value. In the 2-nd and the 4-th intervals, where velocity is linearly increasing from 0 and linearly 12
The curves of error changes over time have typical look of exponential increasing curve in the beginning of the acceleration and decreasing curve in the end of the acceleration. These curves are similar to the curves of
capacitor charge/discharge processes by rectangular impulses (in our case, the impulses of the acceleration have rectangular form). Since the acceleration values in the 2-nd and the 4-th intervals have the opposite sign (+0.2(7) m/sec2 for 180 km/h velocity profile and +0.74(074) m/sec2 for 800 km/h velocity profile), the second surge of radial error in the 4-th interval (the acceleration is negative) is always greater than the first surge. This can be observed by comparing curves in Fig. 7, a and Fig. 8, a. The same results were calculated for 6 more scenarios for two Holux GR-213 receivers (10 and 09). Note, that the ratio of absolute acceleration values for 180 km/h and 800 km/h is 2.67, and approximately same ratio (2.29-2.33) can be calculated for the 1-st (more stable) and the 2-nd surge of the radial error for the same velocity profiles.
Comparing Tables 3, 4 and 5, 6 (respectively) shows that changing a direction of movement to its orthogonal (parallel to meridian and vice versa) have almost no influence on values of mean errors and RMS both for radial error and velocity error. Garmin GPS-72 is yet another GPS receiver which shows that mean velocity error value decreases after a movement has been started. The curves of velocity error values for 800 km/h profile are shown in Fig. 9. The curves of errors over time in Fig. 9 are similar to ones from Fig. 6. (Graymark GPS-101) The mean values of p , s errors and RMS of these errors over intervals 15 have the same order and are not greater than 2-2.5 times of analogous Graymark GPS-101 and Garmin eTrex values.
Fig. 9. Current values for velocity error (km/h) for the receiver Garmin GPS-72 when the object is moving along the meridian with velocity profile 800 km/h (SHIFT=40)
Some generalized results In conclusion we should add, that there is a common regularity in the behaviour of velocity errors RMS s for all GPS receivers. This regularity consists in the fact, that when the moving begins (and thus, there is velocity), the value of the mean velocity error s is decreasing for all GPS receivers except Holux GR-213, and the root mean square deviation of the error (RMS s ) is increasing. For Holux GR-213 type GPS receivers the mean velocity error is also increasing, however in this case it is caused by acceleration instead of velocity. This RMS s behaviour is illustraded in Fig.10 for most of GPS receivers used in the experiments with velocity profiles of 180 km/h and 800 km/h.
b) Fig. 8. Current values for: a) radial error (meters) and b) velocity error (km/h) for the receiver Holux GR-213(09) when the object is moving along the parallel with velocity profile 800 km/h (SHIFT=1)
Table 5. Holux GR-213(09), 180 km/h, latitude Interval s , km/h number 1 2.71259e--1.40645e-4.55551e-1.66723e-4.55875e-2 Table 6. Holux GR-213(09), 180 km/h, latitude Interval p, m number 1 220.127.116.11.2.48913
RMS s , km/h
0.12440 0.35310 0.33728 0.30558 0.16115
a) b) Fig. 10. Generalized results for RMS s of all receivers (latitude scenarios) with velocity profile: a 180 km/h; b 800 km/h
0.38384 1.60791 0.75918 2.33697 1.71095
The plots in Fig. 10 show that Root Mean Square deviation of velocity measuring error (RMS s ) is increasing for the most receivers when the movement starts. Conclusions 1. During the intervals with velocity or acceleration
(intervals 2,3,4) for both velocity profiles (180 km/h and 800 km/h) in both directions (along the meridian and along the parallel), the absolute value of velocity measuring error is being decreased, when movement starts (from 2-3 times up to order and more). That is true for all GPS receivers, except Holux GR-213, for which velocity measuring error can increase when the moving starts. 2. Root Mean Square deviation of velocity measuring error is increased for most receivers when the movement starts. 3. The mean value of radial error has no obvious dependency on velocity factor and its value for all GPS receivers except for Holux GR-213 receiver. If there are no surges in processed data, the mean values of this error does not exceed 0.50.7 m for Garmin eTrex and Garmin GPS-72 receivers, and 12 m for Graymark GPS101 receiver.
rd interval), the error returns to its normal value of 2-3 m, which was observed in static mode (zero velocity). 5. Root Mean Square deviation of radial error is small value about 0.02-0.3 m for all receivers, if there are no surges in processed data. The only exception is Holux GR-213 receiver for which this value generally is within the range from 1-2 m to 5-6 m. 6. Relative to velocity absolute value, both of the error parameters (mean value and RMS) decreases, when velocity increases. References
1. Kluga A., Kluga J., Semjonova V., Grabs E. Estimation of GPS Receiver Parameters with Rereference System and Signal Simulator // Electronics and Electrical Engineering. Kaunas: Technologija, 2008. No. 5(85). P. 6972. 2. Kluga A., Kulikovs M., Semjonova V., Zelenkovs A. GPS user devices parameter control methods // Telecommunications and Electronics. Riga: RTU, 2007. Vol. 7. P. 4548. 3. Zelenkov A., Kluga A., Grab E. Accuracy Estimation of GPS Receiver Parameters with ReReference System in Static Mode // Telecommunications and Electronics. Riga: RTU, 2008. Vol. 8. P. 31 36. Received 13
4. Radial error for Holux GR-213 GPS receivers has determinate dependency on acceleration absolute value. This error increases when acceleration increases. As a result, the fact of acceleration increases mean radial error from 2.5-3.5 m up to 6-11 m for 180 km/h velocity profile. For 800 km/h velocity profile the error increases from 2-3 m up to 1520 m. When the velocity reaches fixed value (in the 3-
A. Kluga, A. Zelenkov, E. Grab, V. Belinska. Accuracy Estimation of GPS Receiver Parameters with Simulator in Dynamic Mode // Electronics and Electrical Engineering. Kaunas: Technologija, 2009. No. 6(94). P. 914. The paper reveals results of satellite system users devices testing in dynamic mode using signal simulator STR4500. Testing was made in the laboratory with metallized window glass and in reflectionless camera SAC3. Testing results have shown the possibility to determine parameters of user devices and dependence of accuracy of user device parameters and movement mode. For accuracy parameters estimation in dynamic mode we used 4 GPS receivers of the different kind: Graymark GPS-101, Garmin GPS-72, Garmin eTrex, Holux GR-213. The movement was simulated with two different velocities 180 km/h and 800 km/h. It was also simulated in two orthogonal directions to the North and to the East from Riga (total 4 scenarios). The following parameters were estimated: fix position error in horizontal plane (radial error), its mean value and Root Mean Square (RMS) deviation, as well as current velocity error, its mean value and RMS. Ill. 10, bibl. 3 (in English; abstracts in English, Russian and Lithuanian). A. ,.,. ,. GPS // . : , 2009. 6(94). . 914. P GPS STR4500. SAC3. . 4 Graymark GPS-101, Garmin GPS-72, Garmin eTrex Holux GR-213. 180 / 800 / c ( 4 ). ( ), (RMS) , , . 10,. 3 ( ; , .). A. Kluga, A. Zelenkov, E. Grab, V. Belinska. GPS imtuv parametr tikslumo analiz naudojant imitatori dinaminiu reimu // Elektronika ir elektrotechnika. Kaunas: Technologija, 2009. Nr. 6(94). P. 914. Pateikti palydovins sistemos testavimo rezultatai, gauti naudojant signal imitatori STR4500 dinaminiu reimu. Testavimas atliktas specialiai tam skirtoje laboratorijoje su metalizuotais lang stiklais ir spec. kamera SAC3. Pastebta, kad yra galimyb nustatyti GPS imtuv parametrus, tikslumo priklausomyb ir judjimo tip. Tikslumo parametr vertinimas buvo atliktas taikant keturis GPS imtuvus: Graymark GPS-101, Garmin GPS-72, Garmin eTrex, Holux GR-213. Judjimas imituotas esant dviems skirtingiems judjimo greiiams: 180 km/h ir 800 km/h. vertinti ie parametrai: nuolatin pozicijos klaida horizontalioje ploktumoje, jos vidutin vert ir vidutins kvadratins verts (angl. RMS) nuokrypis, taip pat greiio paklaida, jo vidutin vert ir vidutins kvadratins verts nuokrypis. Il. 10, bibl. 3 (angl kalba; santraukos angl, rus ir lietuvi k.).
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